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Social Justice- Argument Strategies


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Authority Argument
-creates ethos claim: vote for x data: because I know x is a good perosn implicet warrant: I'm a good judge of character
doing A will cause B, doing A has caused B- common in discussion of blame -can be interwoven with pragmatic argument- pragmatic argument acts as statement of future negetive consequences- usually supports pragmatic argument
-differs from parallel case in that comparison argument is a strategy for measuring the value of something. It does not predict or urge actions like in a parallel case. Example: Reagan asks if people are better off now than they were in 1976 comparing what has happened to what might have happened if past policy had not been implemented King: “If this philosophy had not emerged, I am convinced that by n ow many streets of the South would be flowing with floods of blood” -compares philosophy of nonviolent direct campaigns with bloodshed
-sacrifice argument
-shows people's willingness or lack of willingness to sacrifice for a policy -ie king “willingness to suffer”
-middle ground argument -
positions a policy between two extremes -example: WEB Dubois- positions himself between Washingtons passive accommodation to the will of the greater group and the undesirable course of revolt and revenge(look up)
Consequences or pragmatic argument
-you should/nt' do x because it will lead to various consequences -rely on sign parrelel case, causal, athority, ect to prove case
-stipulative definition
-provides an operational account of how a term is going to be used in a particular context- stipulative definitions can be if you call the death penalty cruel, your definition of cruel may be different from somebody elses
condensed definition
common elements of definition: ie dictionary terms
meaning of term through accepted social and political authorities.
authoritative definitions
Etymological and historical definitions
defining based on history of terms meaning
dissociative definition
-claims to furnish the real true meaning of the concept as opposed to its customary or apparent usage. Uses modifier
Definitions by negation
-defining something by its antithesis ie term unusual- we can only understand what is “usual”
metaphorical definition
often creating structural metaphor to define abstract idea ie “the pursuit of happiness”
implicit accentuation strategies
-denotatively is in standard dictionary sense connotatively- imply nonstandard meaning example- using “” around the word freedom
Dentalogical arguments
acting in accordance with a principle indefinitely often fail because of situational specifics opposite of prudential argument
Directional argument complex events occur in stages and are causally related to eachother- when used in a con argument implies that a series of stages will lead to a dreaded end
ie John Calhoun urges senate to refuse to receive pertitions on the subject of abolition- -domino metaphor- Americas view in 1960s on communism-Gay marriage leading to polygamy
appearance vs reality use of modifier ie calvin and hobbs not like disjunctive which creates either/ or division changing in interpretations of statistics MLK Jr. advocates for civil disobedience but insists he doesn't stand for lawlessness possibly appearance- ideal and practical is reality condensed dissociation- advocate does not provide criteria for distinguishing between appearance vs reality. Ie use of modifiers “apparent peace” vs “real peace” elaborate dissociations ie kings letter -criteria for distinguishing between and reality are provided
Divisional argument/ disjunctive syllogism
-we can either do a or b- one is rejected with seperate argument. Other argument is “lesser of two evils”
Example and Generalization
stretching of sample -reason from sample to group -tax and spend liberals -different from sign in that generally arguments from a sign support a more limited claim and are more context dependant and less bound to specific context -example and generalization example- police jumps off bridge- you conclude all police officers are brave -sign example-police man jumps off bridge- you conclude he is brave
Extend range of arguments
extend logic not directional
interpretive arguments-
assertions about meanings of texts -appeals to authorial intention -looks for signs of original intent -clear evidence of original intent -appeals to historical context -what word/ passage meant in time piece was written -appeals to text -focus on what words mean today -appeals to authority -ask authority- ie catholics to pope
Loci of Quantity, Quality and Existent
values and hierarchies- standards of evaluation quantity- more is better than less- if more benefit- it is better quality-more qualitative considerations ie certain species of animal is still distinct irrepearable- we will not be able to undo the consequences of inaction- example arguments for preserving our enviorment existent Henry Clay “if slavery an original question, no one would be in favor of it,,,but since it does exist, we must orient our thinking to actual conditions-deals with workability/ prudential arugments affirmative action -we are not “Starting from scratch, existing conditions exist”
Motivational and Emotive arguments
Emotional Arguments appeal to emotion/ feelings
parallel case
comparing two similar cases ie Iraq and Vietnam
Part whole argument
if part is threatened- whole is threatened injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere
responding to the anticipated objections of your opponents
prudential argument
self-interested calculation of costs and benefits a collection of argument which reveal underlying disposition -negotiaion between the case and the principle that allows both to gain in clarity -look at context- similar to loci of existent
prudential argument
self-interested calculation of costs and benefits a collection of argument which reveal underlying disposition -negotiaion between the case and the principle that allows both to gain in clarity -look at context- similar to loci of existent ie caumo believes catholic politicians don't have authority to dictate pro life policies in legislation -connection between middle ground and prudential reasoning ie Roosevelt- believes that aggressive action on part of fed gov necessary to pull america out of depression -had to make values consitent with american ideals of liberty and individualism machiaveli- stable innovation
Residue arguments
enlarges divisional argument ie “we can do a, b, c, or d provide reasons for not selecting other alternatives can overlap with middle ground- middle ground different in that it identifies other extremes, residue identifies as other soultion MLK jr...Now there are three ways that oppressed have generally dealt with their oppression...
clues or symptons signs are ambiguous-can be interpreted in many ways past behavior for future behavior- does not cause future behavior-simply indicates future behavior
Waste and Sacrifice
-something will be wasted if we give up now ie waste of Iraq war if we give up

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