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River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837- charter of a company granted by the state can't work to the public disadvantage.
Manifest Destiny
1840s/50s phrase expressing the inevitableness of continued expansion of the US to the pacific. Coined by John O'Sullivan.
Horace Greeley (1811-1873)
Editor/founder of New York Tribune. "Go West, young man." Said people struggling in E could make fortunes in W.
Thomas Hart Benton (1793-1836)
Senator from Missouri, opposed slavery, advocated government support of frontier exploration and expansionism.
Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
1822, first American settlement in Texas. Imprisoned in Mexico 1833-35, returned to command the settlers' army in the Texas Revolution.
Texas War for Independence
1835 Texan leaders seized San Antonio, lost it in Alamo. Issued a Declaration of Independence, and surprised Santa Ana in 1836 Battle of San Jacinto, capturing him and gaining independence.
Santa Ana
Dictator of Mexico, attacked the Alamo in 1836. Defeated later on by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
Spanish mission coverted into a fort, besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. Texans held out for 13 days before being slaughtered.
San Jacinto
April 1836 surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana. Won Texan independence.
Sam Houston (1793-1863)
Former gov of Tennessee, sent to Texas by Jackson to negotiate with Indians. Commanded Texas army in 1835, led to victory at San Jacinto. Later President of the Republic of Texas, supported joining the Union in 1845. Later US Senator/Gov,, but removed in 1861 for not joining the Confederacy.
Republic of Texas
Created 1836, tried to act as own nation, but joined US in 1845 b/c of debt, internal conflicts, and Mexican threats.
Annexation of Texas
1845 became a state, joint resolution (both houses of Congress supported) under Tyler.
Election of 1844
Polk (Dem), Clay (Whig), Birney (Liberty). Issues: manifest destiny, tariff reform, Texas, Oregon. Birney (abolitionist party) drew votes from Clay to give Polk NY and the election.
Explored by L and C (1804-6), American fur traders there, but after War of 1812, GB took control. Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk, gave US Oregon at the 49th degree.
Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territory
Texas: "S border is Rio." Mexico: "No border is Nueces" US and Mex agreed not to send troops there, Polk later reneged on the agreement.
Mexican War
Causes: annexation of Texas, border dispute 1st part fought in N Mexico (led by Zachary Taylor), 2nd part fought to capture Veracruz and Mexico City (led by Winfield Scott). Result: Mexico gave up lots of W (NMex, Colorado, UT, Arizona, Nevada, CA), Zachary Talor elected Prez, Santa Ana abdicated
John C. Fremont
Civil gov of California, joined with Stephen Kearny to take California from Mexico.
Stephen Kearny
Commander of Army of the West in Mexican War, marched to California, securing New Mexico.
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
Negotiated by Nicholas Trist in 1847, ended Mexican War. Gave the US the American SW in return for $15 million.
All Mexico Movement
Benito Juarez overthrew Santa Ana, blocked American immigration to Mexico.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842, established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states. Ended Aroostook War (Maine lumberjacks v. Canadians, 1839).
Oregon Territory
Oregon/WA/parts of BC. Convention of 1818 held this area under GB and US joint occupation, eventually border established at 49th parallel.
Election of 1848
Taylor (Whig) v. Lewis Cass (Democrat) v. Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party). Taylor's hero status/sidestepping of slavery brought him victory. Cass wanted popular sovereignity, Free Soil wanted no slavery in Oregon.
Wilmot Proviso
Penn Rep David Wilmot attached a proviso to Polk's Appropriations Bill of 1846, would block slavery from all new territory. Early federal slavery debate.
Transportation Revolutioin
1850s, RRs were cheap and widespread. Reduced travel time and shipping cost/possibilities. Linked cities' economies.
Boston Associates
1814, opened a Massachusetts factory, ran by Lowell. Invented the power loom. Made cloth so cheap that people began buying instead of making it.
Factory girls
Lowell opened a boarding house for his factory girls- hired unmarried woman b/c they were cheaper than men and undistracted by domestic duties.
Cyrus McCormick
Invented the reaping machine (1831), making corporate farming possible. Part of industrial revolution.
Elias Howe (1819-1869)
Invented sewing machine, 1846.
10 Hour Movement
Labor unions advocated a 10 hour workday (previously, worked from sunup to sundown).
Clipper ships
Long, narrow with tall masts and huge sails. Developed after 1825, v. fast and good for trade to China.
Cyrus Field (1819-1892)
Backed the Transatlantic Telegraph Cable, first attempted in 1857 and completed in 1866.
Robert Fulton
Invented the commercial steamboat (the Clermont) in 1807, and the first practical submarine (the Nautilus).
Samuel Morse
Developed a working telegraph.
Walker Tariff
1846- lowered tariff, introduced warehouse system of sorting goods until duty is paid. (Sponsored by Polk's Sec. of Treasury, Robert Walker).
Independent Treasury System
After the National Bank was destroyed, vaults in various cities to collect/expand gold/silver gov funds were created by Van Buren and Polk. Meant to keep gov out of banking.
American Colonization Society
1817 formed, purchased land in Liberia, shipped free blacks back to Africa.
Militant effort to do away with slavery. Began in 1700s, in N, became a political issue in 1830s and dominated after 1840s until the Civil War.
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
Militant abolitionist, created and edited 'The Liberator' in 1831. Famous due to inflammatory language, attacking even moderate abolitionists and advocating N secession.
Theodore Weld
Abolitionist, advised anti-slavery Whigs in Congress, wrote anonymously 1839 'American Slavery as It Is' (inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin).
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
2 sisters from S.C. who lectured with first-hand accounts of slavery. Also involved in prison reform and the temperance movement.
Nat Turner's Revolt
1831, Virginia. 60 slaves killed 55 whites, resulted in manhunt with 100 slaves killed (Turner caught 2 m later). Slave states strengthened laws against slaves, united in support of fugitive slave laws.
Sojourner Truth
(Isabelle Baumfree), first black woman orator to speak out against slavery. Very famous.
Gabriel Prosser (1775-1800) revolt.
Planned to revolt, make Virginia a state for blacks with help from Haiti. 1000 slaves planned to attack Richmond, but were delayed and betrayed.
Denmark Vesey
1822 SC, tried to seize Charleston, but was betrayed.
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)
Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, v. famous abolitionist speaker/writer. Edited 'The North Star', an anti-slavery weekly.
Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond
Iron mill in Richmond run by skilled slaves, best iron foundry in naton. Kept Confederacy alive until 1863 as its only cannon supplier.
Mountain whites in S
Rednecks, poor, aspired to own slaves. Hated blacks/rich whites. Made up much of Confederate Army, fighting for sectionalism and states rights.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842: Slave escaped to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured and returned him. Pennsylvania indicted that agent for kidnapping. Supreme Court ruled that only the owner of an escaped slave could apprehend that slave.
"King Cotton"
Used by S orators/authors to emphasize cotton's economic dominance of the S, and that the N needed the cotton. 1858, James Hammond: "You daren't make war against cotton!... Cotton is king!"
Free Soil Party
Formed 1847/8, opposed slavery in new territories but also wanted to ban free blacks from there.
John Sutter (1803-1880)
erman immigrant who had land in California, gold was found on his land in 1848.
Miners flocking to California in 1849, established claims all over N California. Looking for gold.
Compromise of 1850
Pushed through Congress by Stephen Douglas. Cali admitted as free, UT/NM organized w/out slavery restrictions, Texas/New Mexico border decided, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, tougher fugitive slave laws.
Fugitive Slave Law
1793 and 1850, provided for return of escaped slaves. 1793 never reinforced in N. 1850 law was tougher, aimed at stopping Underground Railroad (it was illegal to help escaping slaves).
Anthony Burns (1834-1862)
Slave fled to Boston from Virginia in 1854. Attempts to unreturn him led to huge protests, eventually bought for $100,000 by Boston friends after he was returned.
Ablemann v. Booth
1859: Sherman Booth sentenced to prison for assisting a fugitive slave. Wisconsin Supreme Court released him, saying the Fugitive Slave Law was unconsitutional, but the US Supreme Court overturned that ruling.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote it, helped abolitionist cause, helped bring about the Civil War.
Election of 1852
End of Whig party- Pierce (Dem) won by a landslide. Whigs merged into new Republican party.
Perry and Japan
Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan in 1853, impressed Japan (usually isolationist) so much that they opened trade w/ US in 1854 Treaty of Kanagania.
Ostend Manifesto
Tried to get Spain to sell Cuba for $20 million to the US. Unsuccessful, and N upset cuz Cuba would've been a slave state.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854, repealed the Missouri Compromise and went for popular sovereignity over federal intervention in territories about slavery.
Birth of the Republican Party
1854, coalition of Free Soil, Know-Nothing, and the Whigs. Liberal, anti-slavery. 1856 election, Prez candidate John C. Fremont got 1/3 popular vote.

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