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Election of 1824
Jackson, Adams, Clay, Crawford: Jackson won popular vote, but not electoral. Went into House of Reps, where Clay helped Adams win
"Corrupt Bargain"
Jackson's charge that Clay had traded his vote for Adams (1824 election) in the House of Reps for being Secretary of State
Tariff of Abominations
1828- raised tariff on manufactured goods, protected N but harmed S . S claimed it unconstitutional cuz it harmed state's rights.
Vic-President Calhoun; South Carolina Exposition
VP Calhoun anonymously published 'South Carolina Exposition', which proposed that states nullify the Tariff of 1828.
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
Jackson represented the "Common Man", the American Dream come true. Appealed to city workers, small businessmen, farmers.
Age of the Common Man
Jackson's presidency- government should be run by the 'common man'- an educated middle class informed by the free press. 90% white men could vote, expanded under Jackson.
Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
1829-1841: free public schools, expanded suffrage to white men w/out land, better factory conditions, more women's rights, spoils system, rise of Abolitionism.
National Republicans
After 1824 election, some DRs joined to oppose Jackson (JQ, Clay, Webster). Supported by NW, favored American System- joined Whigs in 1830s.
Caucus System, National Nominating Conventions
Caucuses- small, secretive party groups picked candidates. National Nominating Conventions- delegates voted. Anti-Masonic Party brought about conventions.
Kitchen Cabinet (Lower Cabinet)
Jackson's friends/advisors he conferred with instead of his regular cabinet. Included Martin Van Buren.
Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
Winter of 1838-39, General Winfield Scott evicted Cherokees from GE, moved to Oklahoma. Of the 16,000 who went on this "Trail of Tears", 4000 died.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia; Worcester v. Georgia
1831: Supreme Court ruled that Indians weren't independent nations, but dependent nations which could be regulated by fed gov. 1832: Supreme Court decided Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations- GE and Jackson refused to enforce. Both under Chief Justice John Marshal
Whigs: origins, policies
Conservatives, popular with plantation owners/pro-Bank. Mainly from National Republican party (Federalists)- name from Brit party that opposed King George III during the American Revolution. Supported industry, American System. Generally upper class- Clay, Webster, Calhoun.
Maysville Road Veto
1830- would have built a road in Kentucky (Clay's state), vetoed by Jackson because he didn't like Clay/thought that states should pay for their internal improvements.
Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
1791 Bank of the US was chartered, ran out in 1811, 2nd Bank chartered in 1816. Jackson opposed (said it favored rich), Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle was the president- made loans tighter, said it didn't destroy small banks. Jackson vetoed its recharter in 1832, and it ran out in 1836.
Jackson's removal of deposits, Roger B. Taney, pet bank, Loco-Focos
1833, Jackson removed deposits from the 2nd Bank and fired secretaries of treasury who refused (he was mad cuz Biddle used bank funds to support his opponents). Taney was the C.J. of the Supreme Court, helped Jackson crush 2nd Bank. Pet banks- state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds. Loco-Focos- 1835 Democrats who wanted reform, opposed tariffs/banks/monopolies/other special privileges.
Peggy Eaton Affair
1829-31 social scandal: Jackson's Secr of War was rumored to have an affair with his new wife before her husband had died in 1828. Some cabinet members snubbed her, Jackson supported her- helped dissolve the cabinet (esp Calhoun, who was against the Eatons).
Calhoun's resignation as VP
1832- Calhoun (SC) supported state's rights, so diff from Jackson that he resigned and became SC's Senator.
Foote Resolution, Webster-Hayne debate
1830 bill by Samuel Foote to limit sale of W public land to new settlers. Webster showed that the states' rights doctrine would lead to civil war. States rights v nationalism.
Nullification crisis
1832 South Carolina Convention, declared Tariff of 1832 'null and void', made it illegal to collect that tax. Jackson strongly protested this.
Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
Caused S.C. to give up the nullification ordinance, would reduce the tariff rates levied in 1828 and 1832.
Force Bill
1833- authorized Jackson to use army/navy to collect Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 in South Carolina- never used (passed same day as Clay's Compromise Tariff) but SC nullified it in protest.
Specie Circular
1836 issued by Jackson- land had to be paid for in hard money. Stopped land speculation, public land sale went down, caused Panic of 1837.
Charles River Bridge Decision, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, General Incorporation Laws
1837 decision by Taney modified Marshall's 1819 Darmouth College Case ruling ("state cannot make laws infringing on charters of private organizations"). Taney said that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot disadvantage the public. Began legal concept that private companies cannot injure the public welfare.
Panic of 1837
Specie Circulation stopped land speculation on paper money. Prices of land/cotton fell, Bank of US failed, bankruptcy, unemployment.
Dorr's Rebellion
1841- Rhode Island had a 1663 charter saying only property holders and their eldest sons could vote (50% pop). Thomas Dorr led rebels- wrote a new constitution, elected him governor in 1842. State militia took over, Dorr pardoned. Brought about new 1843 constituion giving almost all men suffrage.
Election of 1840
Harrison (Whig), Van Buren (Democrat), Birney (Liberty). Panic of 1837 blocked V. B (cast as aristocrat to Harrison's 'war hero in a log cabin'- not totally true).
Rise of the 2nd Party System
Since 1840s, Democrats and Republicans only.
Tariff of 1842
Protective tariff signed by President Tyler, raised general level of duties to before-1833 Compromise Tariff levels.
1830s/40s philosophy of Emerson. No need for organized churches, ea person communicated directly with God/Nature. THe mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, 'transcendent' reality. Individualism, self-reliance, emotions, no social constraints. Emerson, Thoreau- often in cooperative communities like Brook Farm and Fruitlands
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Essayist, poet- led transcendentalism. International renown, abolitionist.
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), Walden, "On Civil Disobedience"
Transcendentalist, lived alone at Walden Pond from 1845-47, wrote 'Walden'. Refused to pay a tax to support the Mexican War, spent a night in jail, and wrote "Civil Disobedience" about it- passive resistence, inspired social/political reformers. Very individualistic.
Margaret Fuller, The Dial
Social reformer, transcendentalist, women's mvmt. Edited 'The Dial' (1840-42), transcendentalist publication.
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1850)
American novelist. The Spy (1821)- about the American Rev. The Pioneers and Last of the Mohicans about the frontier (Leatherstocking Tales). Clash between Indians, 'civilization, and untamed wilderness.
Herman Melville (1819-1891), Moby Dick
American novelist, rejected transcendentalistic optimism, thought man faced a tragic destiny. Not popular at the time, later accepted. Moby Dick (1851) about Captain Ahab, who seeks revenge upon the white whale who crippled him, but loses his life/crew/ship.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), The Scarlet Letter
Once a transcendentalist, became anti-transcendentalist. Descendent of Puritans, showed their hypocricy/insensitivity in 'The Scarlet Letter.'

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