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Comm Exam


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Sunshine Laws
government meetings and documents are open to public
Powerful Effects Theory
Media has direct influence on people
War of the Worlds
1/6 people thought it actually happened. 1 hour program. not most listened to show
Hypodermic Needle Theory (Harold Lasswell)
media injects us with info and we take it in and believe it
Minimalists Effects Theory (Lazarsfeld)
media have hardly any affect on people. voters are more influenced by other people than media
Agenda Setting Theory (McComb & Shaw)
Media doesnt tell people what to think, but what to think about
Cumulative Effect THeory (Neumann)
Media influence is gradual over time, increases
Spiral of Silence
vocal majority intimidates the minority into silence
Consistency Theory
People choose media messages consistent with their views and values
Individual Selectivity
Selective exposure, perception, retention/recall
Cultivation Theory (Gerbner, Gross, Signorielli)
Media is the primary means for learning about other cultures
Bobo Doll (Albert Bandura)
Exposure to violence on TV may make children more violent and aggressive
Catalytic Theory
Violent people are drawn to violent movies
Desensitization Theory
We build up a tolerance towards violence. become more used to it.
Information pollution
tons of media available with no sense of order or priority, media gives you info to confuse you
Uses and Gratifications
theory that people choose media that meet their needs, interests
Surveillance Function
media provide information on what's going on
Socialization Function
media help people fit into society, people mingle and socialize about media
Diversion Function
Media entertainment. stimulation relaxation or emotional release from every day
Selective Exposure
people choose some media messages over others
Selective Perception
people tend to hear what they want or expect to hear
Selective retention
people retain some things and not others
Selective Recall
people recollect some things and not others
learning to fit into society
Historical Transmission
communication of cultural values to later generations. oral, written, recorded
Paul Lazarsfeld
found voters more influenced by other people than media. Minimalist Effects Theory
two step flow
media effects on individuals are through opinion leaders (people they know and respect)
Marshall McLuhan
said media alienates humans. alienation-dissatisfaction with individual and cultural deviations from basic nature
Schenck vs. United States
handed out leaflets telling people not to be involved with war. violated 13th amendment. he lost court case
Benjamin Gitlow vs. New York
he published "Left Wing Manifesto", arrested because it was a Socialist paper, lost case
Near vs. Minnesota
shut down Saturday Press paper
prior restraint
a court order banning publication of unpublished material. prohibits expression before it is made
Public endangerment
yelling "fire" in a theater
National Security
Pentagon Papers leaked to NY Times, they published excerpts, court ruled in favor on NY Times, prior restraint wasnt established
Incitement Standard
4 part test that replaced the "clear and present danger" test. government cant prohibit expression of an idea because society deems it offensive
Libel-written Slander-spoken
Freedom of Information Act
restrictions on Sunshine laws=National security, trade secrets, medical and personnel files, police files
Orson Welles
his radio drama cast doubt on powerful effects theory
Walter Lippmann
his Public Opinion book assumed powerful media effects. we dont see the world as reality, but as "pictures in our heads"
Harold Lasswell
studied ww2 propaganda. his mass communication model assumed powerful effects theory
Wilbur Schramm
tv has minimal effects on children
narcoticizing dysfuntion
people think their involved when their only informed
Hadley Cantril
said there is less media than had been thought
multistep flow
media effects come through complex relationships
aggressive stimulation
people are inspired to violence from media depictions
George Gerbner
said that democracy is endangered by media violence
William McQuire
found most media violence research flawed
Violence Assessment Monitoring Project
conducted nonviolence studies and found less serious media depictions than earlier thought
Robert Park
argued that media create awareness
media induced passivity
media entice people away from social involvement
kitsch (Dwight Macdonald said all pop art is this)
word for trendy, trashy, low art
Herbert Gans
created continuum of high middle and low culture audiences
Susan Sontag
saw cultural social value in pop art
cognitive dissonance
occurs when people realize their values are inconsistent
removal of humankind from natural tribal state
restoring of humankind to natural tribal state
global village
connection of every human being
first amendment
bans government from limiting free expression. James Madison is author
Benjamin Gitlow
his appeal resulted in a ban on state laws that restrict freedom of expression
Jay Near. Howard Guilford was his colleague in producing Saturday Press
his appeal resulted in a strong ruling against government prior restraint on expression
Robert McCormick
Chicago Tribune publisher who supported Near v. Minnesota appeal
American Civil Liberties Union
backed near vs. Minnesota
TPM standard
government control time place and manner of expression
Joey Johnson
flag burning protester whose conviction was overturned because of first amendment
New York Times vs. Sullivan
public figures can only win libel suits under extreme circumstances
reckless disregard
supreme court language for a situation in which public figures may sue for libel
Cherry Sisters
sued paper for neg comments. they lost case.
Dorothy Barber
successfully sued when photos of her in the hospital were published
Onassis v. Galella
she success sued photography for harrassment of her and children

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