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Primary Deviance
Any acts committed before one obtains a social label.
Secondary Deviance
All deviant acts committed after the labeling occurs. Labeling propels someone from primary to secondary.
Tertiary Deviance
Person accepts the deviant identity, but they reject the negative stigma associated with it.
Degredation ceremonies
propels people from primary to secondary deviance.
Total institutions
labeling influences how ppl view themselves
Characteristics of total institutions:
- isolation of the individual - encompasses all aspects of life, no ability to control your own behavior - total subordination of inmates to staff; at the mercy of staff members.
4 parts of moral enterprise campaign:
Raise awareness, moral conversion, claims elevated to norms, and rules applied unequally.
3 tactics to raise awareness:
Danger messages, testimonials of experts, and rhetoric.
Danger messages. *
*raising awareness - Messages meant to scare people/instill fear into society.
Testimonials of experts. *
*Raising awareness - – Use the testimony of experts to support their claims
Rhetoric (3 kinds)
*Raising awareness - dramatic case examples, using stats, and creating new syndromes.
Dramatic case examples. *
*type of rhetoric - The moral entrepreneur provides the most extreme cases of deviance. Ignore more mild cases
Using Stats. *
* type of rhetoric - Often, moral entrepreneurs use numbers to make their claim. People tend to believe and buy into numbers.
Creating syndromes. *
* type of rhetoric - medicalization.
Moral conversion. * 3 types.
*part of moral enterprise campaign. - try to convince everyone of their views and convert all neutral parties. This is all about getting people to convert to your side of thinking. -Make act visible, endorsements from opinion leaders, and form alliances.
Claims elevated to norms. *
*part of moral enterprise campaign. - Usually this means it turns into a law.
Rules are applied unequally. *
* moral enterprise campaign. - a. The rules are applied differently to people based on how much social power they have.
differential social power.
The idea that people have different amounts of social, different resources, and different access to resources
Money/Social Class. *
*element of social power. - i. The most important form of social power that you can have in American society. 1. This can influence how much people listen to you or allow you to navigate the legal system with greater ease.
Sex/gender. *
* element of social power. - i. This can be your biological gender, or how you present you gender to others. Ex. Tom boy
Race/Ethnicity. *
*element of social power. - i. For the most part, the whiter you look, the more social power you have.
3 forms of self-social control:
- the generalized other. - panopticon. - I & Me
Generalized other. *
* form of self-social control. - ⬢ This is basically a frame of reference that is shared by the society that you are a part of. Anytime you try to imagine yourself from the perspective of others, you are taking part in the generalized other. ⬢ This is similar to a norm. This term is a very abstract term, not an actual person. Can be looked at like a cloud that is always following us to remind us of how we should be acting
panopticon. *
*self-social control. - • Refers to a particular structure (physical setting). Drawing: center tower with a ring around it (ring holds prisoners). Guards in the center tower. This is an extremely efficient and effective design. Used in prisons. Often times the tower has one-way glass. • Prisoners are put in a situation in which they feel that cant deviate because they always could be being watched. Don’t really even need a guard, just the idea that there could be a guard watching.
I & Me. *
* self-social control. - o Our “I” is our compulsive, creative, and spontaneous side. • This is the part of us that want to act on impulse/on a whim o Our “Me” is our normative, conformist, and orderly side. This side is mindful of social expectations. • The “Me” is like the generalized other. Both mindful of social expectations. o Remember this by: I → impulse and Me → expectations
techniques of neutralization (5):
denials of responsibility, denials of injury, denial of the victim, appeals to higher loyalties, condemning the condemners.
Denials of responsibility. *
* tech. of neutralization. - i. “It’s not my fault.” I cannot take responsibility because it was due to factors that were beyond my control. Don’t always have merit to them.
Denials of injury. *
* tech of neutralization. - i. Where the person says “No harm, no foul.” Nobody was hurt, so nobody should be considered deviant.
Denial of the Victim. *
* tech of neutral. - i. No specific victim can be identified or that the person that was victimized won’t even know it. - OR ii. People may use this when they say “Ya, they would be considered a victim, but they deserved/they had it coming.” Victim deserved it.
Appeals to higher loyalties. *
* tech of neutral. - i. This is when you ignore a social norm based on a higher belief. You are being loyal to something above and beyond the social norms. My goal is above the general social norms.
Condemning the condemners. *
* tech of neutral. - i. When the person tries to deflect any blame by putting the blame on the person that is blaming them.
4 types of excuses:
- appeal to accidents excuse. - appeal to defeasibility excuse - Biological drives excuse. - scapegoating exuse.
Sad Tale. *
*justification. - – reconstruct the actor’s biography in highly disadvantaged terms that explain current behavior.
self-fulfillment. *
*justification. - lay claim to personal growth, health, and conscience as a legitimate rationale for contested conduct.
stages in become bisexual: 4
⬢Initial confusion ⬢Finding and applying the label. ⬢Settling into new identity ⬢Continued uncertainty
degredation ceremonies.
propels people from primary to secondary deviance, set of activities that official agents of social control force the deviant to endure in order to strip him/her of their individuality
moral entrepreneurs
are the ones that construct and make sure that we always have a constant supply of deviance. Manufacture and try to “sell” their ideas of deviance so society.
rule creators
⬢ People who create deviance by making or helping to make rules. This is where the rules and laws come from. Ex. Govt, MADD, religious groups.
rule enforcers
⬢ The people that carry out the consequences when a deviant act is created. Ex. The government, police, medical professionals
elements of social power:
-money/social class - sex/gender - race/ethnicity - age - numbers and organization - Lookism - political statue

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