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Psychology Now


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Defining Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What does behavior refer to in the definition of psychology?
Overt behaviors- directly observable actions and responses - Covert behaviors- private, internal activities such as thinking,dreaming, remembering.
Empirical Evidence is information gained from direct observation.
Scientific Observation
a systematic empirical investigation that is structured to answer questions about the world.
Research Method
a systematic process for answering scientific questions.
Developmental Psychologists
study the course of human growth and development, from conception to death.
Learning Theorists
study how and why learning occurs in humans and animals.
Personality Theorists
study personality traits, motivation, and individual differences.
Sensation and Sensation and Perception Psychologists erception Psychologists
study how we discern the world through our senses.
Comparative Psychologists
study and compare the behavior of different species, especially animals.
study how behavior relates to biological processes.
Cognitive Psychologists
study thinking-reasoning, problem solving, memory
Gender Psychologists
study differences b/n females and males
Social Psychologists
study human social behavior such as attitudes, conformity, leadership, racism, and friendship.
Evolutionary Psychologists
study how our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during the long history of mankind.
Cultural Psychologists
study the ways in which culture affects human behavior- spoken language, foods eaten, parents discipline, laws obeyed.
Animal Models
used to discover principles that apply to humans, such as stress, learning, obesity, aging, sleep
Psychology's 1st Goal in scientific research is?
to name and classify and make a record of observed behavior.
Edward Titchener
called Wundt’s ideas structuralism and tried to see the structure of mental life into basic “building blocks”
William James
studied animal behavior, religious experience and abnormal behavior and wrote Principles of Psychology.
Define Functionalism
School of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments
Darwin’s principle of natural selection
a principle that states evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions. Functionalists admired this principle.
Define self-actualization
the process of fully developing one’s personal potentials.
Mary Calkins
researched memory -1st president of the American Psychological Association in 1905
Christine Ladd-Franklin
studied color vision
Margaret Washburn
Published The Animal Mind - 1st woman to be awarded a Ph. D in Psychology
Three Complementary Perspectives on Behavior
The Biological Perspective The Psychological Perspective The Socio-cultural Perspective
The Biological Perspective
seek to explain all behavior through physical mechanisms, such as brain activity -form the broad field of neuroscience
The Psychological Perspective
Like the Behaviorist, this perspective uses objective observation -Created cognitive science
Define Positive Psychology
type of psychology that focuses on positive behavior, such as strengths and virtues.
Define Cultural Relativity
the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs (The Indian believing spirits are haunting her)
Define Social Norms
Unspoken rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group (blacks vs. whites
Hypothesis Testing
The predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship b/n variables.
Clever Hans
German horse that could do math. By changing the conditions under which you observe the horse, you have controlled the situation to gain more info.
Define Naturalistic Observation
Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural setting
Define Theories
A system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observations.
Correlation Method
Correlation MethodMaking Measurements to discover relationships between events
Experimental Method
Investigating behavior through controlled experimentation
Courtesy Bias
a tendency to give polite or socially desirable answers
Critical Thinking
An ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize info.
Pseudo psychology
Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
the most popular pseudo psychology
astrology, believing that the position of the stars and planets at the time of one’s birth determine personality traits and affect behavior.
Uncritical Acceptance
the tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself…that’s why you may believe your horoscope.
Horoscopes’ apparent accuracy is an illusion based on
fallacy of positive instances.
Fallacy of Positive Instances
The tendency to remember or notice info that fits one’s expectations, while forgetting discrepancies.
The Barnum Effect
The tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms⬦If you name a few general feelings, everyone will relate to at least one of them

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