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C:10 Vocabulary

World Cultures and Geography terms.


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A.D. 330 Roman emperor built Constantinople at a strategic place where Europe and Asia meet.
A princess of Kiev, became the first member of the Kievan nobility to accept the faith.
Viking leader accepted the request that the Slavic people from the northern village of Novgorod asked Vikings from Scandinavia for aid.
Alexander Nevsky
Prince of Novgorod, defeated the invaded Swedes. His victory established Novgorod as a strong, independent principality.
Person who acts as a temporary ruler.
Armenia and Georgia
Northeast of the empire, and south of the Caucaus Mountains between the Black Sea and Caspian Seas, lay these two kingdoms.
The skills and knowledge used by people to make tools and do work.
Vladimir's son became a Grand Prince in A.D. 1019. Under his rule, Kievan culture reached its peak. First library established and legal system organized.
During the A.D. 1100s and early A.D. 1200s, Georgia enjoyed a golden age of freedom and culture under this Queen.
the Slavs
Among the largest groups living in Eastern Europe. The leadership passed from Eastern Orthodox passed from the Byzantines to them.
Bulgaria and Serbia
Northwest of Byzantine territory, in Europe's Balkan Peninsula, arose these other two realms.
Byzantine missionary, devised an alphabet (Cyrillic) for the Slavic language, presented the Bible and church ceremonies to the Slavs in their own language, and won many converts.
Persons, such as priests, given authority to conduct religious services.
During 100 A.D. and early 1200s A.D. had a golden age of freedom and culture. By early 1800s Georgia could not longer defend itself and became part of the Russian empire.
Illuminated manuscript
Book page decorated by hand with elaborate designs, beautiful lettering, or miniature paintings.
Vladimir- Suzdal and this other city were the strongest Eastern Slavic principalities.
Rose in the 600 A.D. reached its peach of prosperity 300 years later. Byzantine Empire took them over, and were conquered by the Ottomans.
the Ottoman Turks
New invaders from central Asia, attacked the eastern provinces. In A.D. 1453 they laid siege to Constantinople.
An Italian trading city on the Ariatic Sea, agreed to help the Byzantines' effort to regain the lands in return for trading privileges in Constantinople.
Ivan III
In A.D. 1430 during the rule of him,Moscow finally refused to pay taxes to the Mongols. Took title Czar, regarded as the successor of the Byzantine Emperor.
A landowning noble of early Russia.
Fortress village to the south.
Title taken by rulers of Russia beginning in the late 1400s.
Early 300s became the first officially Christian country in the world. Attacked by Persians and successfully defeated them off, and attacked by Arab armies and invaded by these armies. They had Turkish invaders. 1800s A.D. the Armenia kingdom was divided between the Russians and the Ottomans.
Picture made up of tiny pieces of colored glass, tile, or stone set in mortar.
wide, grassy, semiarid plains of Eurasia, from the Black Sea to the Altai Mountains.
Territory ruled by a prince.
the division of the Christian Church in 1054 that separated the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Justinian's wife, beautiful, intelligent, and ambitious. Actively participated in government, and was concerned with improving the social standing of women.
Church members who are not clergy.
the Mongols
or Tatars, as the Slavs called them, defeated the armies of the Eastern Slavic princes and conquered most of the country except for Novgorod. Sacked towns and villages, killed thousands, taxed conquered peoples, required alliance to the ruler, and this rule lasted for two centuries.
Tiridates III
In the early A.D. 300s, the Armenians under this king accepted Christianity.
Ruled Byzantine Empire at its height. Son of a prosperous peasants from Macedonia in the western part of the empire.
Had accepted Eastern Orthodox Church and Cyrillic, enjoyed prosperity, defeated by Ottomans in the Battle of Kosovo, and ruled by ottomans for over 500 years and then sought revenge.
("image breaker") An opponent of the use of icons in Byzantine churches, who thought they encouraged the worship of idols.
Vladimir slav
Olga's grandson, was Prince of Kiev. He decided to abandon the old beliefs and to adopt a new religion that he thought would help the Eastern Slavs become a more powerful civilization.
A person who travels to carry the ideas of a religion to others.
Cyril and Methodius
Among the most powerful missionaries were these two brothers. They reasoned that Christianity would be more acceptable to the Slavic peoples who lived north of the empire if it were presented in there own language.
Believing that icons encouraged superstition and idol-worship, in A.D. 726 this emperor ordered all icons removed from the churches.
The Byzantine capital, reinforced this multicultural character. Located near the centers of early Christianity as well as on major trade routes.
A community of men who have taken religious vows.
A Christian religious image or picture.
Dnieper River
One of the Byzantine trade routes ran north across the Black Sea and up this river, then overland to the Baltic Sea.
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of the Roman Empire. At its height in A.D. 500 it included most of the Balkan Peninsula, Italy, southern Spain, Asia Minor, Syria and North Africa.
the Seljuk Turks
Who had come from central Asia and converted to Islam, defeated the Byzantines at the town of Manzikert.

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