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African Civilization


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What are the 42 Admonitions of Ma'at
The statements uttered by the deceased as he stood before the Netcherw.

These were the laws by which the person was to have lived his life and the standard by which he would be measured at the time of judgement.

(referred to in Budge's translation of "The book of the Dead")

According to Browder, the 42 declarations were written 1,500 years before the writing of the ten commandments.
Who or what is Abu Simbel?
Abu Simbel is a set of temples near the border of Egypt with Sudan. It was constructed for the pharaoh of Kemet, Ramesses II who reigned for 67 years during the 13th century BC (19th Dynasty).
Who was Akhenaton? What did he do?
Akhenaton was previously Amenhotep IV. Is credited according to Browder, for making monotheism the state religion. Was trying to get everyone to server "Aton"
Who was Ausar, Auset, Heru?
Thought of as the African Trinity. Ausar was know as Osiris, Auset was know as Isis, and Heru was known as Horus. Supposedly existed about 4,000 years.
What or who is Belzoni?
Giovanni Belzoni, "The greatest plunderer of them all". Excavated the Temple of Abu Simbel, gained entry into the Second Pyramid of Giza, discoverd the royal tomb of Seti I, recovered a statue of Amenhotep III, and other artifacts.
What is Caduceus?
A staff that the Roman god Mercury carries. Origin is believed to have started with Djhuiti (Thoth), (the Netcher of Science), then Hermes of the Greek. Used currently as a symbol representing a variety of disciplines in the medical profession.
What can you say about Cathedral Design?
designs and architecture was patterned after the ancient temples of th Nile Valley
What can you say about Champollion, Champollion the Younger, Champollion Figeau?
A 23-year old French man named Jean Fancois Champollion (Champollion the Younger), deciphered the hieroglyphic alphabet in 1822. First professor of Egyptology at College de France. Brought France innumerable artifacts including tekhen. Champollion Figeau (wrote a document indicating the pigmentation of egyptians)
Continuous screw
A device used when the ancient miners encountered flooding to pump water out of mines.
Count Volney
18th century Frenchman, Wrote a book titled "The Ruins of Empires". Described the Sphinx as, "tyically Negro in all its features"
What is the Dynastic Period?
A period of rulership by one or more families. In the third century B.C.E., the history of Kemet was divided into dynasties by the scholar priest manetho.
Who was Imhotep?
The earliest known physician ( 2700 B.C.) Believed to be the author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus (Oldest document on Surgery)
What is the Edwin Smith Papyrus?
The oldest known document on surgery. It is believed to been written in the 18th dynasty.
What is the Ebers Papyrus?
Explores a broad range of medical science also describes 48 injuries to the head.
What is edible mummy?
John sanders purchased more that 600 pounds of mummified flesh. He sold for a substantial profit. Artist used the powder in paintings to prevent pictures from cracking.
What is Egyptology?
The science used in Europe and Western culture to describe Egyptian culture.
What is the Eye of Horus (heru) aka (eye of Ra)?
Was a Netcher associated with the sun. Also used to represent omnipotence.
What is the Giza Pyramid complex?
The most important archaeological site on the planet. Is comprised of ten pyramid structures. Most famous is the Great Pyramid. (only remaining of the seven wonders of the world)
What is the Great Seal of the U.S. Government?
Is comprised of the obverse and the reverse. The obverse is believe be the emblem of Heru. The reverse is the Eye of Heru and the Pyramid of Giza.
What is Herem-Akhet?
One of the largest and oldest monuments created .It has the head of a human and the body of the lion. Greeks called it the Sphinx.
Who was Howard Carter?
Discovered the Tomb of the young King Tutankhamen in 1922. Was a British Egyptologist. Discovered the only tomb that was not raided.
Who was James H. Breasted?
Professor of Egyptology at Chicago University. Described Egyptians as "brown men".
What is Kilimanjaro?
Tallest mountain in Africa which boarders Tanzania and Kenya.
Library of Alexandria
The library of Alexandria was said to have contained a copy of every scroll know to man. King Ptolemy issued this decree. 295 b.c.e
is associated with the seven cardinal virtues the keys to human perfectibility: truth, justice, propriety, harmony, balance, reciprocity and order. Symbolic representation looked like a human with outstretched hands.
Masons and Western History
Masons and Westen History
Operative masons were the men responsible for constructing the cathedrals in medieval Europe.
Mediteranean pastoralism and agriculture
Mountains of the Moon
Is believed to be the source of the Nile River
To make into a mummy by embalming and drying
Napoleon Bonaparte
French military leader that invaded Egypt, under this invasion the Rosetta stone was found. (around 1799)
Who is Narmer?
Known as King Narmer or Menes or Aha. Memphis was named in honor of Menes, the ruler who unified the two lands of Upper and Lower Egypt.
A personification of one of the divine principles of the Creator.
Olmec civilization
Illustrated the African presence in early american. Olmec's head had african features.
Omotic agriculture
Papyrus of Hunefer
A document attempting to explain the origin of the Nile Valley Civilization. Claimed that god Hapi dwells at the foothills of The Mountains of the Moon.
Papyrus of Moscow
A document that shows a mathematical problem of the inventory of goods contained in a house.
A social and economic system based on the raising and herding of livestock
Pythagorean Theorem
A theorem credited by the Greeks that finds the hypotenuse of a right triangle.
Rhine Papyrus
a document indicating about Nile Valley mathematics. Discovered in the mid 19th century. Consists of more than 80 mathematical problems and their solutions.
Rosetta Stone
Ancient black basalt tablet bearing Medu Netcher, demotic and Greek characters. It was found in Rosetta, Egypt in 1799 and was key to deciphering ancient Kemetic writing.
Solar Calendar
A calendar developed by astronomers of Kemet that divided the year into 365 days.
Sothis Calendar
Was a calendar that coincided with the helical rising of the "dog star", Sirius, to track the flooding of the Nile.
Step Pyramid of Saqqara
Grave built for King Zoser of of the Third Dynasty by the Architect Imhotep. (2630 bce)
Sudanic Agriculture
Temple of Man in Wa-set (Thebes)
A temple thought to be dedicated to the creation of man. Family superimposed Ramses II
Tomb robbers
West African Planting Agriculture
How does Ehret define civilization?
refers to the grouping of societies and their individual cultures, conjoined by their sharing of deep common historical roots.
What does modern falsification deal with (cheikh)
Here, Cheikh Anta Diop deals with how Western historians, for the last five hundred years wrote or rewrote history glorifying the people of European extraction and distorted the history of the rest of the world.
Regions existing befor 9,000 bce?
Niger-Congo (10,000 bce), Afrasans ca (13,000 bce), Middle Nile Tradition (11,000 bce), Khoisan 16,000 Bce

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