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Chapters 1 & 2


undefined, object
copy deck
simplified drawing of an object
a __________ puts together simplified drawings of objects to represent abstract concepts
a __________ uses the sounds of the symbols to make up compound words
a _________ is when 2 or more pictographs are put together and the first sounds of things are sounded out to represent the word -
"egg + cell + ant = excellent";
precursor of phonetics.
how was writing first used in historical times?
- show ownership
- contents of containers
- legal documents/business transactions
Earliest writing system in Sumeria
circular stone tablet found in Crete, associated with the Minoan Culture. The inscriptions have not yet been deciphered.
Phaistos disc
this guy deciphered hieroglyphics in *[1822]
Jean-Fran├žois Champollion
substrate made from a weed, very brittle and could only be written on one side
substrate made from animal skins, was able to be folded and written on both sides
Appearance of a writing system & alphabet is mainly based on the ________ and _________

writing implement used
why did different cultures write on different substrates?
it depended on what natural resources were readily available
in hieroglyphics, the names of Pharaohs were put in _________ to symbolize eternal life
what is possible with a written alphabet that was not possible with an oral tradition?
the ability to communicate with someone who was not living in the present day
why was the Phoenician alphabet widely adopted in the ancient world?
- The Phoenicians were extensive traders on the Mediterranean Sea
- There were only 22 characters to learn
- The alphabet was phonetically based, making it easy to learn to read and write.
______ is another name for a book
papermaking originated in ______
_________ was made from the dry, bleached skin of animals
_________ was the Roman lettering style that was condensed to save space.
__________ was the language that early bibles were copied in
______________ were used in manuscripts to introduce the text and to also show a simplified drawing of the bible story and as a way for the scribe to show his/her religious devotion.
Illuminated Caps
During the Middle Ages, the isolation of feudal societies and the danger of travel led to the development of ________
regional lettering styles
Under Charlamagne's rule, what important typographic accomplishment took place and why was it important?
Carolingian Hand was established as the standard copying text, in hopes of further uniting Charlamagne's Empire.
what lettering hand was marked by great variations in letterforms?
when and where was rag paper introduced in Europe?
1100. Italy.
what resettled in cities after the Dark Ages?
Universities and Guilds
uses the first sound of the object represented to sound out the word
important before the creation of writing; allows pre-literate society to store information
the guy who developed the Carolingian lettering hand
Alcuin of York
where we see most of the Roman inscriptions today
Triumphal arches
a campaign funded by the Pope, whose intention was to save the Holy Lands from the infidels
the Crusades
lettering that started in Ireland
Celtic uncials
Tall, condensed angular letters, originated in Germany
Round, open style of lettering. Originated in France.
Rotunda or Carolingian
this lettering innovation started in the interest in saving paper. originated in Ireland
means "as the ox plows"
group associated with early books, compared versions of the Bible text
Early Christians
lettering written on guidelines that were one inch apart
version of hieroglyphics; evolved letters that mean "priestly writing"
Heriatic script
version of hieroglyphics; evolved letters that mean "of the people"
Demotic Script
roughly the year that Charlamagne was in power
800 AD
a culture who added characters to an early version of out alphabet to represent vowels
Ancient Greeks
A lettering style that resembled a woven piece of fabric on the page when it was written together
Gothic Textura
the place where ancient manuscripts were preserved by copying
Scriptoriums in Monasteries
the monk who Charlamagne made responsible for creating a legible Carolingian hand for the other monks to learn and use in copying books
Alcuin of York
what hand was Littera Antigua based on?
Why was Littera Antigua called what it was?
renaissance scholars wrongly believed that the ancient texts copied under Charlamagne were the original ancient text, hence the name "antigua"

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