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Russian Revolutions & Other Stuff (quiz march 10)

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Declaration of the Rights of the Toiling and Exploited People
Lenin proclaimed this in January 1918. stated that the goal of the revolutionary government was the socialist organization of society and the victory of socialism in all countries.
Treaty of Versailles
signed in 1919. did not resolve national rivalries, however; rather left international tensions and political instability and economic malaise. Newly drawn borders made nationalities dissatisfied. Many significant problems were unresolved.
Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov)
leader of the Bolsheviks. family was nonhereditary nobility due to result of loyal service. got a law degree. Exiled to Siberia. Also exiled in Switzerland. Slightly Asian looking. Believed that Marxist analysis could be applied to the backwards Russia. Rejected all compromise. Instead of believing in social experiences of the workers, believed that only a small minority of workers would achieve consciousness and that they should join with intellectuals in a party that would direct the masses. Thought capitalism was ripe for a fall around the time of the war. Wanted to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat.
the "majority;" Lenin and his followers; wanted soc. Revolution now
neighborhood councils made up of delegates from factories, shops, trade unions, and political parties that helped organize strikes (legalized in Dec.). St. Petersburg workers' councils, the establishment of which were championed by the Mensheviks. Willing to collaborate with liberals.
Independent Social Democratic Party
demanded immediate assistance for workers. Asked the government to organize a militia loyal to the republic. This was refused, so they left the governing coalition of Germany which weakened the gov.
those among Russian socialists who argued that Russian workers should defend their country against German attack.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
march 3, 1918. signed w/ Russia's Bolshevik government and Germany. Gave up one-fourth of the surface of what had been imperial European Russia—very fertile land, most of iron and steel production. Agreed to German occupation of Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia. Acquiesced to pulling Russian troops out of Ukraine and Finland(Germans then occupied all of these areas and set up puppet regimes and got Ukraine into a harsh treaty). This angered the leftist Socialist Revolutionaries who then ended their cooperation with the Bolsheviks.
May 4 movement
in China. Named for the day of the first major demonstrations in Beijing against the Treaty of Versailles. Accentuated the development of Chinese nationalism. Occurred when the allies publicly agreed to the concessions that Japan wanted like building railways in the northeast province of Shandong.
Revolutionary defensism
the demand of the Petrograd Soviet and accepted by the provisional government which was a middle position between conservatives and radicals. Wanted "peace without annexations and indemnities;" also demanded that Russian military capacity be fully maintained.
Liberal constitutionalism
played a role in the expanding domain of Russian public opinion since the 1860s. believers in this were gentry, leaders of local assemblies, and members of the expanding professional classes. Some state bureaucrats too.
White Terror
in Finalnd, this took 80,000 victims among those who had supported the Revolution.
British Dominions
Canada, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.
Alexander Ulyanov
Lenin's brother; member of the revolutionary group "Peoples' Will;" executed due to participation in plot to assassinate Alex III.
Red Terror
officially began in September 1918, following attempts on the lives of several Bolshevik leaders, including Lenin. Government decrees gave the Cheka almost unlimited authority and set up forced labor camps to incarcerate those considered enemies.
Armistice Day
November 11, 1918. German troops in Warsaw put down their arms and Poland became independent.
didn't want a state in Palestine
opposed the war; viewed it as a struggle between capitalist powers in which workers were but pawns.
Treaty of St. Germain
Vienna reduced to being the oversized capital of the small country of Austria which had less territory now.
The Magic Mountain
written by Thomas Mann in 1924. set up a parallel between a swiss sanatorium and contemporary English civilization, saying that rationality had become madness.
National self-determination
the principle that ethnicity should determine national boundaries.
Free Corps
right-wing paramilitary units that demobilized soldiers were sometimes enlisted in by generals. Encouraged by the minister of defense.
Woodrow Wilson
US President. Had the idealistic belief that an era of collective security would begin after the war that would prevent future wars of a similar magnitude. Son of a Presbyterian minister. Stood for national self-determination. Made the fourteen points. Wanted to make the world safe for democracy and create the League of Nations. Thought the great war had been created over competing claims of national groups, magnified by the commitments of great power alliances.
General Lavr Kornilov
newly appointed commander in chief of the army in 1917 who seemed an obvious candidate to overthrow the provisional government. Tough, decorated Cossack. Escaped from Hungary after being captured during the Great War and was a favorite of the Kadets.
Irish Republican Army
organized from remnants of the rebel units disbanded after the ill-fated Easter Sunday insurrection against Britain in 1916. supported due to conditions of high unemployment, strikes, and sectarian violence btwn Catholics and Protestants In Ulster.
Jozep Pilsudski
general in Poland. One of the leaders of the Polish independence movement during the last decade of the Russian Empire. Led a polish legion that defended Warsaw in 1920 and drove the soviet red army out of Poland. Became chief of state of independent Poland in 1918. refused to stand for election for president in 1922 on grounds that the constitution wouldn't grant him enough authority. In 1926, with support of wealthy landowners and army, he overthrew Poland's parliamentary government and imposed authoritarian rule. Thus Poland became the first Eastern European dictatorship established in post-war years.
dominated the 1907 (third) Duma. Believed that the tsar's promises in his manifesto of October 1905 represented sufficient reform and wanted to stop at that.
Revolution of 1905
ended in failure but there was a little reform although really it was still tsarist. Heightened divisions among exiled Russian socialists.
Tomas Masaryk
Slovak philosopher who had spent the war years making contacts in London in the hope of advancing the cause of an independent Czechoslovakia. Became the president of the new state of Czechoslovakia in 1918. popular among both Czechs and Slovaks.
ill only son of the Romanovs. Hemophiliac and heir to the throne. Healed by Rasputin.
Paris Peace Conference
at the chateau of Versailles outside Paris. In order to make the peace that they thought would transform Europe. Decided that Germany should assume financial burden of putting Europe back together because "they were responsible for the war." left a legacy of bitterness and hatred because the German Republic was dissatisfied with the terms of the treaty.
Greater Serb
vision of Yugoslavia in which Serbia would dominate. Dreamed up by Serbian nationalists. Won't be on the quiz because it was on the last one!
Balance of power
when the predominant strength of one power was balanced by alliances between several other powers. Now was unequal to the task of maintaining peace.
Socialist Revolutionaries
populists. Largest radical group. Believed the peasants would one day overthrow the tsar and only revolution could bring reform.
Vittorio Orlando
Italian premier(Prime Minister). Wanted his country to receive the promised Italia Irredenta from Austria-Hungary promised by the Allies in 1915: the port of Triest, the South Tyrol, Istria, northern Dalmatia. When President Wilson didn't want to give them that last half Italians were mad.
people who would spread news of the revolution to distant reaches of the old empire. Did this in the October revolution and ones before. Also, after the Russian Civil War, they reestablished Bolshevik authority over border lands like Georgia, Ukraine, and Turkistan.
Treaty of Neuilly
Bulgaria lost territory ceded to Greece, as well of small pieces to Romania and parts of Thrace.
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
began at the end of March 1917. brings together representatives of other soviets that had sprung up after revolution. Transforms Petrograd Soviet into a national body, est. a central executive committee dominated by members of the Petrograd Soviet. Increased popular pressure for radicalization of Revolution.
Alexsandr Kerensky
Socialist Revolutionary leader. Head of the provisional government, trying to smooth relations between them and the soviet. Leader of the first coalition gov. prime minister of the second coalition gov.
Red Guard
factory workers' militias
Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party
Marxists founded this at Minsk in 1898. confident that one day in way future proletariat would be sufficiently numerous/class-conscious to seize power. After a democratic revolution had successfully overthrown the Russian aristocracy.
Constitutional Democratic Party
Kadets. Staunch liberals who demanded constitutional government and thought that Nicolas's promised reforms left the essential structures of autocracy unchanged.
Aleksandr Stamboliski
leader of the Agrarian Union Party. Became premier in 1929. signed the Treaty of Neuilly. Assumed dictatorial powers in 1920 but in 1923 army officers helped engineer a coup d'état w/ the support of the king. This man fell into the hands of Macedonian nationalists who cut off his arm, stabbed him 60 times, and decapitated him!
most disastrous military defeat of the Russians where 100,000 Russian troops were captured
War Communism
how the Bolsheviks reacted to the crisis in the summer of 1918 of food shortages and famine. Appropriated heavy industries and gradually put an end to private trade. Created "committees of poor peasants." Forcibly requisitioned food and raw materials, turning poor peasants against wealthier ones. May have saved the Revolution but it took the terrible toll of decline in industrial production.
Prince Michael
Nicolas's brother who he left the throne to. Petrograd convinced him to refuse to succeed.
Bloody Sunday
January 22 1905. Orthodox priest led a march of workers carrying a reformative petition to the tsar's Winter Palace. but troops blocked their way and 300+ marchers including women and children died and 1000+ maybe wounded. Shattered the myth that the tsar was the Holy Father.
group of far-left revolutionaries who took their name from the leader of a revolt by Roman slaves in the first century BC. uprose in January 1919.put down by military units
Black Hundreds
fanatical Russian nationalists, perhaps instigated by Orthodox priests, who unleashed a wave of violence against Jews. Led by small traders and agricultural laborers who feared that economic change would cost them. Also by police who opposed political reform. Continued to beat up opponents of tsar.
Grigory Rasputin
Alexandra's great favorite. Debauched holy man. Occult power. Moved his way to the inner circle of court life and then healed Alexei. Was assassinated by noble conspirators: first by poison, then shot, then smashed skull, then drowned in Neva River!
Rowlatt Acts
allowed the government to forgo juries in political trials in India. Indians protested in 1919 in Amritsar in Punjab against these.
Pyotr Stolypin
named by Nicolas 2 as prime minister. Did undertake some rural reforms beginning in 1906
David Lloyd George
British prime minister. Welsh Liberal. More flexible views than the French. Supported France's position that Germany had to be contained in the future, but concluded that it was in Europe's interest to restore the fledgling German Republic to reasonable economic strength because they could emerge as a force for European stability.
anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War. Shared a common hatred of the Bolsheviks. Played upon anti-Semitism by denouncing Trotsky and other Jewish Bolsheviks. Popular opinion was rallied against them when the Allies intervened on their "side" and they were more Brutal than their counterparts
Georges Clemenceau
French prime minister; nickname "the Tiger" wanted to punish germany a lot by dramatically reducing its military army and letting French troops occupy the Rhineland until Germany had paid lots of reparations.
Petrograd Soviet
of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies. Members included several hundred workers. Elected officers, discussed ways to defend Petrograd against German military attack, and sent representatives to encourage the formation of soviets in other cities. Menshevik-dominated. Bolshevik leaders held back.
Treaty of Sevres
most severe of the treaties with Germany's wartime allies. Dismembered the Turkish Ottoman empire. Gave Smyrna and Thrace to Greece, the island of Rhodes to Italy, Syria to France, Iraq and Palestine to Britain, and Saudi Arabia to Britain as protectorate.
Balfour Declaration
1917. Expressed British willingness to support the future creation of a national home for the Jews as a state in Palestine once the Turks were driven out, provided such a state would recognize the rights of preexisting Arab populations.
John Maynard Keynes
protested the harsh treatment afforded Germany at Versailles so he left the British delegation. Denounced the reparations payments in his book The Economic Consequences of the Peace in 1919. saw that the Versailles settlement would fail.
February Revolution
general strike closes down Petrograd, Russian soldiers mutiny, Bolsheviks and others are arrested because they want to go further than demonstrations, Nicolas 2 abdicated and provisional government was set up awkwardly duly serving with the Petrograd Soviet.
Treaty of Trianon
Hungary lost 2/3 of its territory and 3/5 of its population, as lands with a sizable non-Hungarian population were shifted to other national states.
Count Mihaly Karolyi
led an unopposed revolution of liberals and socialists that proclaimed Hungarian independence. Favored a republic; initiated a program of land reform by giving his estates to peasants.
Social Democratic Party
largest party in pre-war years, left-wing
General Alexsandr Kolchak
established a dictatorship in Siberia, claiming to be the new government of Russia. Backed by Britain and France.
national representative assembly; created by the October Manifesto; had little real power. Met for the first time in April 1906.
Fredrich Ebert
Prince Max von Baden named this member of the social democratic party to succeed him as chancellor.
town in the Ural Mountains whereto Bolshevik guards moved Nicolas II and his family. They were executed on the orders of the local soviet on july 17.
Successor states
created by the Treaty of Versailles out of the ruins of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Followed the principle of nationalism that ethnicity was the chief determinant. Like Finland and Latvia and Estonia and Lithuania and Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia and Poland.
Black and Tans
special police force that terrorized the Irish population that supported the Irish Republicans. Kept in Ireland by the British gov.
Government of Ireland Act
passed by parliament in 1920. divided Ireland into 2 districts. Catholic south, majority of island, was a crown colony. Protestant Ulster remained part of Britain.
Kornilov Affair
when Kornilov was going to throw a coup and people supported him but there was a misunderstanding between him and Kerensky because kerensky believed that he would forma military government to restore order at first but remain loyal to him and the idea of a democratic government. Kornilov actually liked military style and authority, probably wanted to seize power and impose a right-wing military regime. Kornilov called on the army to be loyal to Russia and aid the dying motherland. There was never an actual coup d'état in this example of counter-revolution but it aided the Bolsheviks, who were able to portray themselves as the only possible saviors of the Revolution.
Turkish. aka Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Organized armed resistance against foreign incursions, pushing Greek units out. Became president of the Republic of Turkey. Wanted to westernize and secularize the country. Promulgated legal codes separating church and state, implemented compulsory education and Latin alphabet, prohibiting Turks from wearing the Fez.
State Council
upper assembly decreed to be established by the tsar. Loyal people. Counteracted the influence of the Duma.
Leon Trotsky
Lev Davidovich Bronstein. 1879-1940. led uprising in the October Revolution. Revolutionary son of a wealthy jewish farmer. Only serious fighting of the October revolution I think. The "People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs." Offered Germany an armistice in Dec. 1917 but didn't want a peace but they ended up signing a treaty
Russian Civil War
began in 1918 when Kornilov and other generals raised armies to fight the Bolsheviks. Whites vs. Reds. Reds won.
British Commonwealth
created in 1926 and formalized in 1931. union of Britain and the dominions in which each state would be independent and not subordinated to Britain but united by common allegiance to the crown
Sinn Fein
"We Ourselves" in Irish Gaelic. Irish Republican political organization. Were elected by Irish voters to the house of commons, then refused to take their seats in Parliament and then unilaterally declared a republic.
April Theses
Lenin's. argued that wartime chaos had allowed the bourgeois and proletarian revolutions to merge in a dramatically short period of time, and the overthrow of the aristocracy had handed power to the weak bourgeoisie holding power through the provisional government, which needed to be overthrown by the proletariat
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission. New centralized police authority est. December 1917. rooted out Bolsheviks' enemies. Rapidly proliferated into a large organization with virtually unlimited power. Arbitrary arrests
Irish Free State
created by the British parliament in January 22. Made Ireland a dominion within the British Commonwealth but many Irish republicans still wanted severance of all formal ties to Britain and creation of a republic.
Bela Kun
seized power in March 1919, taking advantage of post-war chaos, and tried to impose a Soviet regime. Communist journalist.
April Crisis
of the provisional government. Was when the minister of foreign affairs, a leader of the Kadets, added something that called for "war to decisive victory" and other stuff to an official communication to the allies. Protests and demonstrations against the war by the Petrograd Soviet ensued, leading to his resignation.
King Zog
Ahmed Zogu. Of Albania. Harvard-educated. Ruled 1928-1939. fled to Yugoslavia in 1924 because he feared for his life; then the next year he invaded his own country with an army, assumed the presidency of the Albanian republic, and set up a dictatorial monarchy in 1928
Philip Scheidemann
Social Democrat. Proclaimed the German Republic without authorization from anybody on November 9, 1918.
small centrally located town where the Reichstag gathered. Chosen as the new republic's capital to counter the Prussian aristocratic/militaristic traditions identified with Berlin (old imperial capital)
League of Nations
Wilson wanted to establish this at the treaty of Versailles to arbitrate subsequent international disputes. There was a covenant of this in the treaty that was a nod in the direction of Wilson's idealism.
Russian Socialist Soviet Republic
created by the third All-Russian Congress of Soviets. A federation of soviet republics in which Russia's interests still remained paramount.
name for wealthier peasants.
Jews who wanted the creation of a Jewish national state in Palestine
What is to be Done?
Lenin's pamphlet that established the basic tenets of a new revolutionary party.
October Manifesto
1905. created a national representative assembly (Duma) to be chosen by UMS. Promised freedom of the press.
Nestor Makno
anarchist who led a huge peasant army that controlled parts of Ukraine after the Germans had fallen back.
Stolypin's neckties
ropes of the gallows used to execute more than 1,000 people. These hangings occurred due to an august decree by the tsar that established military field courts that could summarily convict and sentence civilians accused of violent political crimes.
Admiral Miklos Horthy
former Habsburg naval officer who seized power in 1920 and encouraged attacks against Jews. Backed by Hungarian upper classes. Declared his determination to see Hungary regain its previous borders.
Mandate system
created by the powers to deal with Germany's colonies. Placed them under the nominal authority of the League of Nations but they were really administered by Allied powers. Increased Britain's empire size.
Sergey Witte
became prime minister for Nicolas II. Eager to make Russia a modern industrial power if the tsar granted minimal reforms. Got Nicolas to rescind redemption payments, allow religious toleration in Poland, allow Poles/Lithuanians to use their own languages, turn political trials back to regular courts, and abolish some restrictions on Jews. Eventually dismissed...
King Boris III
Bulgaria. Head only in name.
the 6 counties of northeastern Ireland
city with a lot of social polarization.
russia's second city. Less socially polarized than Russia. Insurrection there began after the first favorable reports from Petrograd arrived. A week of fighting and then provisional govt. forces surrendered.
Polish Corridor
Versailles gave Poland the territory of Poznania and much of Pomeriania. Led to the Baltic Sea and devided East Prussia from the rest of Germany.
the "minority;" those who believed that the proletariat revolution lay in the future but not until after the bourgeois uprising. Believed that their historic role ws to mobilize support for their party through propaganda, undertake timely liberal alliances, and reject terror—sought to be a large party of extreme revolutionary opposition.
Kurt Eisner
proclaimed a Bavarian socialist republic in early November in south Germany in 1918.
October Revolution
provisional government collapsed, Kerensky left Petrograd, not a lot of opposition, just neutrality.. not a lot of violence... Bolsheviks now held power in Petrograd
National Council
provisional govt. in Czechoslovakia. Made up of Czechs and Slovaks. 1917.
Treaty of Lausanne
1923. Turkey holding territory on both sides of the Bosporus, the sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles Strait(which was open to all nations).
Ho Chi Minh
young Vietnamese man who was rejected by the Allies at Versailles when he wanted to read a petition that asked that the Rights of Man be applied to the French colonies.
Little Entente
alliances signed by Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia in 1920 and 1921 because they sought security against Germany as well as Hungary and Bulgaria collectively. Each also signed treaties with France.
Conference of Public Figures
in early august 1917 these people pledged Kornilov their support—influential leaders drawn from industry, commerce, banking, military
War Industries Committee
industrialists formed this with permission of the tsar in 1915 in order to expedite wartime production. Delegations of workers were added.
Bolsheviks called this during the Russian Civil War.
Tsarina Alexandra
loathed by her subjects. Born in Germany. Granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Raised in England. Converted to Russian Orthodoxy. Had an ill son. Friends with Rasputin a lot. Extended influence over weak-willed husband; conservative. Was not a German agent but served their purposes well.
July Days
when the Bolsheviks rose in insurrection but ended up failing. This hardened political lines in Russia. Bolsheviks were arrested.
Big Four
David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson, Vittorio Orlando. Main people at paris peace conference.
Progressive Bloc
formed by some liberal members of the Duma, including Kadets. Committed to working with the tsar in hopes of encouraging reform.
Order Number One
issued by the soviet on march 1 1917. claimed for the Petrograd Soviet the authority to cancel orders of the provisional government on military matters and called for the election of soldiers' committees in every unit.
means truth. The Bolshevik party's newspaper whose offices were shut down by provisional government troops.
Jewish Pale
those provinces where Jews were allowed to settle in Russia and where they faced endemic anti-Semitism and occasional bloody pogroms.
King Alexander
of Greece who died in 1920 after being bitten by his pet monkey.
Nevsky Prospect
around where the upper-and-middle class residential districts and the palatial buildings of imperial government lay in Petrograd. Long street. Shows segregation.
General Anton Denikin
White general who headed the 150,000 strong largest White army that was defeated by the Red Army during the summer of 1919 in Ukraine.

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