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Wold Civilizations Ch.1-Ch.5


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Who is Herodutus?
5th century BC Greek, "father of history"
What was the Paleolithic era?
Old stone age; 400,000-7,000BC
What was the Neolithic era?
New stone age; 7,000- 4,000BC
What were the four major river-valleys? (asia minor, egypt)
nile, tigris and euphrates(mesopotamia), indus, yellow
When did the Sumerian society flourish in Mesopotamia?
What were Hammurabi's 3 main goals?
1. make babylon secure
2. unify Mesopotamia
3. establish babylonian culture
What is cuneiform?
Sumerians form of writing/very first
Explain the beginnins of Egypt.
"island in the dessert", development of towns along Nile circa 31,000BC
1. Old Kingdom 2660-2180BC
2. Middle Kngdom 2080-1640BC
3. New Kingdom 1570-1075
Who was Akhenaten?
(Egypt) attempted to impose monotheism
Hittite empire.
Settlement in Anatolia(Turkey) circa 2700BC, first in Asia Minor to master iron technology.
How did Egypt kingdom shatter?
Hittites and "sea Peoples" invaded from 11th to 7th century BC
Who were the Phoenicians?
seafarers, inventors of the first alphabet, spread the technology of iron-working
Was Israel monotheistic or polytheistic?
monotheistic, covenant between people and Yahweh
major military power in 8th c BC, empire established by conquest, eventually ended by the Medes and Babylonians
highway between east and west, lots of small kingdoms that engaged in metalworking, farming, horse-breeding (Medes)
Who initiated the Persian empire?
Cyrus the Great in 6th Centure BC (6 letters in Persia)
Who were the 4 important leaders and conquerers of the Persian empire?
Cyrus, Cabyses, Darius, Xerxes (Xerxes invaded Greece, but didn't conquer it)
What is Zoroastrianism?
founded by Zoroaster between 1000 and 600 BC; monotheism with two powers.
What is the Khyber Pass?
northwestern gateway through Himalaya Mountains to Indus valley, invasion route
What were the two ancient major cities in Indus valley?
1. Mohenjo-daro
2. Harappa

Circa 2500-1500BC
Who were the Aryans?
Immigrates from northwest, gained control of Indus valley 1500-500BC, battlelovers
What was the Rigveda?
oldest hindu scriptures
Describe the castesytem, top to bottom.
brahmans(priests), nobles, commoners, serfs, outcastes
samsara- transmigration of souls
karma- tally of good and bad
universe viewed as eternal and cyclical
probably the most influential in india
What is asceticism?
sever self-discipline and self-denial
What is atman?
essence of the universe present in all
developed from Brahmanism, emphasizing deities Siva and Vishnu, incorporating castes, samsara, karma, asceticism and meditation
What two deities does Hinduism emphasize on?
Siva and Vishnu
circa 540-468BC; all life sacrerd
hierarchy of humans, animals, plants, objects
emphasized asceticism
circa 663-483BC; four noble truths and eightfold path as way to nirvana; universe is eternal and cyclical
What are the four noble truths?
1. all components of individuality are sorrow
2. sorrow arises from craving for pleasure, life and power
3. sorrow may be stopped only by stopping craving
4. the way to this stopping is the eightfold path
What is the eightfold path?
1.right views
2. resolve
3. speech
4. conduct
5. livelihood
6. effort
7. mindfulness
8. concentration
What is theravada buddhism?
teachings of Gautama are complete, unique
What is mahayana buddhism?
many ways to nirvana, many buddhas
Who was the Mauryan empire formed by?
Chandragupta, from wreckage left after Alexanders conquest
Who eventually took over the Mauryan empire after Chandragupta?
Ashoka, converted to Buddhism after conquest of Kalinga, encouraged and supported Buddhism throughout empire
What is Loess?
fertile soil in yellow river
Who took over the Shang Dynasty?
The zhou dynasty overthrew Shang king and claimed heaven's mandate; set up vassal states that eventually became powerful and killed Zhou ruler
What started the "warring states" period and when did it last?
the killing of the Zhou ruler; 402-221BC
Who was confucius?
551-479BC; major chinese philosopher who held universal law governs all things; act like a gentlemen
What is legalism?
government must control man's evil nature by written laws
What is I CHING?
book of oracles
What are Yin and Yang?
two elements of of cyclical nature that keep a balance in the universee

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