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WORLD HISTORY

Terms

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mecca
holiest city in islam, all muslims must face when praying and pilgrimage to it
bushido
code of chivalry in japan
dark ages
period in the middle ages between 500-1000 when learning and civilization declined
characteristics of a civilization
cities, advanced technology, specialized labor, complex institutions, writing
hoplite phalanx
fighting tactic used by the greeks, soldiers fought in tight formation and pushed enemies off the field of battle
aztecs
precolumbian native american people who lived in central mexico, conquered by the spanish
cuneiform
ancient writing style of the sumerians means wedge-shaped
islam
monothiestic religion, originated in arabia, founded by mohammad, allah is god, holy book is koran
ghana
W african society influenced by gold, salt and islam. replaced mali
asoka
emperor of the mauryan dynasty in ancient classical india that created large rock edicts to promote buddhism
beringia
former land bridge that connected asia and north america
swahili
language group of the people on the indian ocean coast of africa
fertile crescent
area in SW asia tha gave rise to many early civilizations, valley containing tigris and euphrates rivers
codex
bark paper book used by the mayans as a history book
aristotle
greek philosopher, student of plato, started the lyceum
thermopylae
greek battle where 300 spartans sacrificed themselves against the persians
bantu
african civilization who spread throughout sub-saharan africa
the golden age of china
ruling era of the tang and song dynasty in china, when they were the most advanced civilization in the world
polytheism
a religious belief system that believed in more than one god
homer
ancient greek writed wrote the two epics: the illiad and the odyssey
civil service exam
confucian idea in china to give the best suited people the best jobs based on their performance on govt. tests
gupta empire
2nd classical empire of ancient india, started by chandra gupta, created extensive trade routes
athens
a greek citystate famous for philosophers and democracy
mayas
civilization of native americans in central ameria. located around the yucatan peninsula
peloponnesian war
war between sparta and athens, sparta wins, weakening greece for the rise of alexander
phoenicians
sea faring people from lebanon who gianed wealth through trade and whose language was the basis of the modern alphabet
inca
precolumbian native american tribe of S america that was conquered by pizarra
prehistory
area of history before writing
magna carta
cornerstone of the democratic process, created & signed in englandin 1215. guaranteed certain basic rights to the people
daoism
chinese philosophical belief, centered around the returning to nature and compassion and moderation
mongols
nomadic people from the asian steppe who created the largest empire in world history
oracle bones
religious belief of ancient china, questions were written on bones and shells to consult spirits
theocracy
government that combines influence from religion in governing
code of hammurabi
set of laws written down by the babylonian king, based on retribution
mansa musa
emperor of mali empire at its height; made a famous pilgrimage to mecca and spread islam in E africa
pax romana
era in ancient rome known for peace and prosperity
tang dynasty
618-907 (china's golden age)
griot
story teller or historian in african societies
song dynasty
dynasty in china's golden age 906-1279
cyrus
persian king called "the great". advocated diversity and tolerance in his kingdom
alexander the great
greek general who conquered most of SW asia and N africa, from macedon
fief
parcel of land given by a lord to a vassal in the feudal system
cathedrals
large churches that were the center of the religious world in the middle ages, great pilgrimages were made to them
hannibal
carthaginian general who led an offensive against rome in 2nd punic war
socrates
greek philosopher, father of philosophy, 'the unexamined life is not worth living'
pharoahs
egyptian kings
philosopher
one who loves wisdom; greek thinkers that questioned the ideas of the times
olmecs
mesoamerican society between 1400-400 BC. practices bloodletting, played the ball game, and created zero concept
the middle ages
era in europe between the classical period and the renaissance. rise of catholic church and feudalism
ghana
empire that existed from 750-1076 AD, saw the intro of camels and islam from arabia
sparta
a greek citystate famous for its army
harappan civilization
river valled civilization of the indus river in india. unable to decipher their writings
hunter-gatherers
nomadic life style before agriculture. had no private property and social equality
samurai
member of japanese feudal system, swore his loyalty and sword to a daimyo like a european knight
gladiators
roman slaves and soldiers that fought for entertainment to please roman crowds and emperors
timbuktu
mali city that was center of empire, helped spread islam there ans was center of east african trade
siddhartha guatama
Buddha! founded largest eastern religion
vernacular
language of the land, means when people use the language of the area they are in
pax mongolia
era of peace in asia throughout the mongol empire, where the mongols provided security for trade
Marco Polo
venetian merchant that was a quest at Kublai Khan's court in China
rosetta stone
stone found in egypt that helped to decode egyptian hieroglyphics
mesoamerica
area of middle america that was home to the olmes, mayas, and the aztecs
maize
staple of mesoamerican diet, aztec, maya, and olmec name for corn
guilds
organizations druing the middle ages where people of same jobs joined together to set prices, wages, and quality
monotheism
religious belief in only one God
cuneiform
oldest form of writing in the world. from ancient sumeria. means wedge-shaped
punic wars
war between rome and carthage, rome becomes superpower after victory
plato
greek philosopher student of socrates, started the academy
persia
territory of what is modern day iran, 4 major kingdoms, founded by cyrus the great 550 BC
shi huangdi
founder of chin dynasty in china, buried with terra cotta army, used legalism in unify china
Animism
religious belief system attributing souls and spirits to animals, plants, or entities. as in early africa and shintoism
hinduism
eastern religion based on karma, centered around caste system
mali
country in africa, was an early empire in east africa from 1230 to 1600. comtrolled salt, gold, and slave trade
zoraster
persian prophet the gave hope for the afterlife, life is a battle of good v. evil
han dynasty
dynasty of ancient china that started the civil service exam and adopted confucionism

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