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Psych Ch. 8

For Chapter 8 Psychology Test! MS. FOX!

Terms

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Confirmation Bias
people seek to prove, or confirm, their hypotheses rather than disprove them
The Framing Effect
refers to the way in which wording affects decision making.
Noam Chompsky
discovered babies use LAD to learn a language only if they have human contact.
Inductive Reasoning
we reason from individual cases or particular facts to reach a general conclusion. Sometimes even wrong even if the premises are right.
Semantics
The study of a meaning. Involves the relationship between language & things depicted in the language. STAGES= babies: Crying, Cooing & Babbling. Toddlers: Words, Words, Words
Analogy
a similarity between 2 or more items, events or situations
Protoype
an example of a concept that best exemplifies that concept
Divergent Thinking
one associates more freely to the various elements of a problem. Right Brained, Creative
A,B,C,D,E
Assess the problem, Brainstorm Solutions, Choose One, Do it!, Evaluate it!
Functional Fixedness
the tendency to think of an object as being useful only for the function that the object is used for.
Phonemes
the basic sounds of a language. 26 Letters in the alphabet, but there are many more than 26 phonemes. They include consonants, vowels, and combined letters
Mental Set
the tendency to respond to a new problem w/ an approach that was successfully used with similar problems
Algorithm
a specific procedure that, when used properly and in the right circumstances, will always lead to the solution of a problem
Heuristics
rules of thumb that often, but not always, help us find the solution of a problem.
Morphemes
the units of a meaning in a language.
Difference Reduction
identify our goal, where we are in relation to it, & the direction we must go to move closer to it.
Symbol
an object or act that stands for something else
Syntax
The way in which words are arranged to make phrases & sentences. The rules for word order are the grammar of a language. The English syntax usually follows the pattern of subject, verb & object of the verb. ie/ Linda(subject)-->cooked(verb)-->dinner(object)
Thinking
a mental activity that is involved in the understanding, processing & communication of information.
Overconfidence
people tend to have a great deal of confidence in their decisions, whether the decisions are right or wrong
Anchoring Heuristics
people sometimes take in making decisions. VALUES
Means-End Analysis
certain things we can do(means) will have certain results(end)
Representativeness Heuristics
people make decisions about a sample according to the population that the sample appears to represent. 50/50 chance.
Overextension
children try to talk about more things than they have words for. Often extend the meanings of words to refer to things for which they do not have words for.
Reasoning
is the use of information to reach conclusions
Overregularization
They make these errors because they have applied the normal rules to all words, even the words for which the rules do not work.
Weighing Pluses & Minuses
choose goals or courses of actions to reach goals. Use a balance sheet
Language Acquisition Device
(LAD)enables the brain to understand & use grammar
Availability Heuristics
people also make decisions on the basis of information that is available to them in their immediate consciousness
Convergent Thinking
thought is limited to available facts, Left Brained
Concept
mentally grouping objects together, events, or ideas that have similar characteristics
Language
the communication of ideas through symbols that are arranged according to rules of grammar. Makes it possible for people to share knowledge.
Premise
an idea or statement that provides the basic information that allows us to draw conclusions
Deductive Reasoning
the conclusion is true if the premises are true GENERAL---> SPECIFIC
Biligualism
speak 2+ languages fluently and understand.
Insight
a sudden understanding

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