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CN X innervates what muscles
All muscles with the work "palat" except tensor veli palitini (CN V3)
Lip testing
CN VII, mi-mi-mi
6th aortic arch becomes
Proximal part of pulmonary arteries
CN XII function
tongue movements
Location for lumbar puncture
iliac crest (between L3 - L5)
Fetal milestone within week 10
Genitalia have male/female characteristics
Bell's palsy
Peripheral ipsilateral facial paralysis
Part of cochlea that picks up low-frequency sounds
the apex
Function of supraoptic nucleus
Thist and water balance
Location of Brunner's glands
submucosa of duodenum
Drug used to keep PDA open
ACE inhibitor teratogenicity
Renal damage
Signs of CN XII lesion
Tongue deviates toward side of lesion
Anterior cruciate ligaments attaches where
Anterior tibial attachment
What has a fenestrated barrel hoop basement membrane
the sinusoids of the spleen
Nerves passing through internal auditory meatus
Foramen ovale becomes
Fossa ovalis
Brunner's glands function
secrete alkaline mucus
Branchial pouch 3 develops into
inferior parathyroids (dorsal wings) and thymus (vental wings) (3rd pouch = 3 items (thymus + 2 parathyroids)
Direct hernia location
Hesselbach's triangle (medial to inferior epigastric artery)
Esophagus and vagus cross diaphgram at what level
Brachial plexus injury leading to decreased thumb function (Pope's blessing)
Median nerve of lateral/medial cords
Neuroectoderm becomes
neurohypophysis, CNS neuron, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, pineal gland
Fetal milestone within week 2
Bilaminar disk, 2 cavities (yolk & amniotic), 2 components to placenta (cytotrophoblast/synctiotrophoblast) (Rule of 2's)
Zona adherens components
E-cadherin and actin filaments
Limbic system functions
Feeding, Fighting, Feeling, Flight, Fornication (5 F's)
Femoral triangle contents
femoral vein, artery, and nerve
In the womb monozygotic twins have
2 amniotic sacs and either 1 or 2 chorions and placentas
1st aortic arch becomes
Maxillary artery (1st is MAX)
Thenar muscles function
Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis, Flexor pollicis (OAF)
Branchial arch 1 derivatives
Mandible, Malleus, incus, sphenoMandibular ligament, Muscle of Mastication, Mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini
Lesion of optic tract causes
contralateral homonymous hemianopsia
low neck dermatome
Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children
Oligohydraminos cause
bilateral renal agenesis (Potter's)
Sudden jerky, purposeless movements
Surface ectoderm becomes
adenohypophysis, lens of eye, epithelial linings, epidermis
Function of ventral posterior nucelus, lateral part (VPL)
body senses (proprioception, pressure, pain, touch, vibration)
Male homologue of glans clitoris
glans penis
Endolymph made by
stria vascularis
Ulnar nerve deficit sensory findings
Medial palm and ulnar 1.5 fingers
Polyhydraminos cause
esophageal/duodenal atreasia
3rd aortic arch comes
Common Carotid (C=3rd letter of alphabet)
skull cap dermatome
Ulnar nerve deficit motor findings
Wrist flexion and adduction, impaired adduction of thumb and ulnar 2 fingers, intrinsic hand muscles (claw hand)
Abnormal opening of penis on dorsal side
Hippocampus projects to
Subiculum (projecting to mamillary nuclei), Septal area
distal 1/3 of transverse colon to upper portion of rectum
Umbilical artery contents
de-oxygenated blood from iliac vessels
Umbilical cord contents
2 umbilical arteries, 1 umbilical vein, allantoic duct, Wharton's jelly
Passage for CN I
cribiform plate
Nucleus solitarius receives what
visceral sensory information (e.g., taste, gut distention, etc.) (CN X)
Ulnar nerve injury location
Medial epicondyle
CN III function
occulomotor, pupil constriction, accommodation, eyelid opening
Branchial arch 3 nerve
IX (innervates 1 muscle and nothing else --> stylopharyngeus)
Peripheral nerve layers
Epineurium, perineurium, Endoneurium
CN VII function
facial movement, anterio 2/3 taste, lacrimation, salivation (submaxiallry and submandibular glands)
EPO secreting cells of kidney
juxtoglomerular cells
Left horn of sinus venosus gives rise to
coronary sinus
5th aortic arch becomes
stroke of anterior circle of Willis signs
general sensory and motor dysfunction, aphasia
Allontois becomes
Urachus or median umbilical ligament (not medial)
Cleft palate mechanism
Failure or fusion of lateral palatine, nasal septum, and/or palatine process
Function of anterior hypothalamus
Regulates cooling (Anterior Cooling = A/C)
Branchial cleft 1 derivative
external auditory meatus
Male homologue of vestibular bulbs
corpus spongiosum
Spermatid acrosome derived from
Golgi apparatus
Hindgut blood supply
inferior mesenteric
what channel has round pores (100-200 nm in diameter) with no basement membrane
the sinusoids of the liver
Macula adherens components
keratin and desmoplakin
Location for pudendal nerve block
ischial spine
Notochord function
Induces ectoderm to for neuroectoderm
Function of ventral posterior nucleus, medial part (VPM)
facial sensation including pain
Midgut blood supply
superior mesenteric
Sperm development
spermatogonium (diploid 2N), primary spermatocyte (diploid 4N), secondary speramatocyte (haploid 2N), spermatid (haploid N)
Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults
Broad ligament of uterus contents
round ligaments of the uterus and ovaries and the uterine tubules and vesels
Abberant development of 3rd and 4th branchal pouches leads to
DiGeorge syndrome --> T cell deficiency
Hypoglossus innervates what
All muscles with the word "glossus" in them, except for palatoglossus (X)
Macula adherens
desmosome made up of keratin and desmoplakin
Spermatid flagellum derived from
Branchial arch 2 nerve
Function of ventral anterior/lateral (VA/VL) nuclei
Sudden wild flailing of one arm
Consequence of lesion in arcuate fasiculus
Conduction aphasia; poor repitition with good comprehension; fluent speech
secretory product of Zona glomerulosa
Regulatory control of zona glomerulosa
Branchial clefts derived from
Ectoderm (CAP = from outside to inside Ecto/Meso/Endo=Clefts/Arches/Pouches
CN I function
stroke of posterior circle of Willis signs
cranial nerve deficits (vertigo, visual deficits), coma, cerebellar deficits (ataxia)
Brachial plexus injury leading to deltoid paralysis
Axillary nerve of posterior cord
Gamma loop
CNS stimulates gamma-motor neuron --> contracts intrafusal fiber --> increased sensitivity of reflex arc
Paramesonephric duct develops into
Fallopian tube, uterus, part of vagina
Found within the red pulp of spleen
T cells
Branchial arch 6 derivatives
all intrinsic muscles of the larynx except one: cricothyroid
Ligaments of the uterus
Suspensory ligament, Transverse cervical, Round ligament, Broad ligament
Ductus arteriousus becomes
ligamentum arteriosum
Function of oligodendroglia
central myelin production
Path for pupillary light reflex (light in right eye)
CN II --> right lateral geniculate -> right pretectal nucleus --> bilateral Edinger-Westphal nuclei --> CN III --> ciliary ganglion --> pupil contraction
Neural crest cells become
ANS, dorsal root ganglia, melanocytes, chromaffin cells, pia mater, celiac ganglion, Schwann cells, ondontoblasts, parafollicular (C) cells of thyroid, laryngeal cartilage
connects cells to underlying extracellular matrix
Branchial arch 2 derivatives
Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid, muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric
Palate elevation testing
CN X, kuh-kuh-kuh
Consequence of lesion in subthalamic nucleus
One consequence of enlarged left atrium
Slow writhing movements of fingers
CN V function
mastication, facial sensation, tensor veli palatini, tensor tympani
nipple dermatome
Brachial plexus injury leading to claw hand
Ulnar nerve of medial cord
Consequence of lesion in basal ganglia
tremor at rest (athetosis)
Spermatid neck contains
Retroperitoneal structures
Duodenum (2nd-4th parts), Ascending & Descending colon, Kidney/ureters, Pancreas (except tail), Aorta, IVC, Adrenal glands, Rectum
Lesion in Wednig-Hoffman disease
LMN --> flaccid paralysis
umbilicus dermatome
Muscle that opens mouth
Lateral pterygoid (Lateral Lowers the jaw)
Fasciculus gracilis location
Medial dorsal column
Dorsal motor nucleus sends what
Autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers of X to heart, lungs, and upper GI
Cells that activate B cells in Peyer's patches
M cells
4th Branchial arch nerve
X (like 6; 6+4 = X)
Branchial arches dervied from
Mesoderm (CAP = from outside to inside Ecto/Meso/Endo=Clefts/Arches/Pouches
Fasciculus cuneatus
Vibration/join position of arms
Right lymphatic duct drains what
right arm and right half of head
Radial nerve deficit motor findings
lack of triceps & brachioradialis reflex, loss of extensor carpi radialis longus (wrist drop)
Lesion in poliomyelitis
LMN --> flaccid paralysis
Lumbar puncture layers
Skin, Fascia, Ligaments (supraspinous, interspinous, flavum), Epidural space, Dura mater, Subdural space, Arachnoid, Subarachnoid space (CSF)
I-cell disease
Failure of addition of mannose-6-phosphate --> lysosome proteins secreted outside of cell instead of into lysosome
Contralateral weakness of lower face only
UMN lesion
Function of Schwann cells
peripheral myelin production
Hypothenar muscle functions
Op[onens digiti minimi, Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi (OAF)
Uncal herniation signs
Ipsilateral mydriasis (stretching of CN III), contralateral homonymous hemianopsia (compression of ipsilateral posteroir cerebral arery), Ipsilateral paresis (compression of contralateral crus cerebri, duret hemorrhages (caudal displacement of brain stem)
secretory product of adrenal medulla
Catecholines (80% epi, 20% norepi)
Muscles of mastication
Masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid
Consequence of lesion in cerebellar vermis
Truncal ataxia, dysarthria
venous drainage below pectinate line
inferior rectal vein --> internal pudendal vein --> internal iliac vein --> IVC
Incus and malleus derived from
1 branchial arch
Consequence of lesion in mamillary bodies
Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy (confabulations, anterograde amnesia)
DES teratogenicity
Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma as an adult
Functions of Golgi apparatus
distributes proteins/lipids, modifies N-oligosaccharide on aspagine, adds O-oligosaccharides to serine and threonine, proteoglycan assembly, sulfation of sugars, addition of mannose-6-phosphate to lysosomal proteins
Passage for CN V2
foramen rotundum
beta cells of pancreatic islet produce
Fetal susceptibility to teratogens
3rd-8th weeks
alpha cells of pancreatic islet produce
Location of Peyer's patches
lamina propria and submucosa of small intestine
Rough endoplasmic reticulum function
site of synthesis of secretory proteins and N-linked oligosaccharide addition to many proteins
Indirect hernia location
Lateral to inferior epigastric artery
CN II function
Right ovary/testicle venous drainage
right gonadal vein --> IVC
Fetal milestone within week 4
Heart begins to beat
Endoderm becomes
Gut tube epithelium, lungs, liver, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid
Consequence of lesion in frontal lobe
Release signs (personality changes, deficits in concentration, orientation, judgement)
Male homologue of labia majora
Consequence of lesion in broca's area
Expressive aphasia (BROken speech) with good comprehension
Unhappy triad of the knee
torn MCL, medial meniscus, and ACL
Nucleus ambiguous function
CN IX, X, XI (Motor only)
Branchial pouch 4 develops into
superior parathyroids
4th aortic arch becomes
Aortic arch on left; Subclavian artery on right
difference between primary and secondary lymph node follicles
primary are dense and dormant; secondary are pale and active
Median nerve injury location
Supracondyle of humerus
Zona occludens
tight junctions
Nucleus ambiguous sends what
Motor innervation of pharynx, larynx, upper esophagus (CN X)
Golgi tendon organ function
Ib fiber senses tension and provides inhibitory feedback to alpha-motor neuron
Loss of knee jerk
Femoral (L2-L4)
Kartagener's syndrome defect
Dynein arm defect --> immotile cilia
Cocaine teratogenicity
Abnormal development and addiction
Dorsal pancreatic bud becomes
Pancreatic body and tail
Lesion in ALS
combined UMN and LMN with no sensory deficit
Femoral triangle borders
Medial edge of Sartorius, Inferior edge of inguinal ligament, Lateral border of adductor longus
delta cells of pancreatic islet produce
Most common location of coronary artery occlusion
CN IX function
Posterior 1/3 taste, swallowing (stylopharyngeus), salivation (parotid), monitoring carotid body/sinus
Sperm food supply
Vision defect with left parietal lesion
right lower quandrantic anopsia
Passage for CN V3
foramen ovale
Most common location of circle of Willis aneurysm
Anterior comminicating artery
Direct hernia usual age
Older men
Nerves passing through jugular foramen
Drug used to close a patent PDA
Zona adherens
intermediate junction
Nerves passing through foramen magnun
Median nerve deficit sensory findings
Loss over lateral palm, thumb, and radial 2.5 fingers
GI blood supply
Foregut (stomach--duodenum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas)-Celiac; Midgut (duodenum to transverse colon)-SMA; Hindgut (tranverse colon to upper colon)-IMA
2nd aortic arch becomes
Stapedial artery and proximal part of carotid artery (Second=Stapedial)
inguinal ligament dermatome
Suspensory ligament of uterus contents
ovarian vessels
Fasciculus gracilis
Vibration/joint position of legs
Branchial arch 1 nerve
Tongue taste innervation
CN VII, IX, X (solitary nucleus)
Function of lateral hypothalamic nucleus
Digestive tract layers
Epithelium, Lamina propria, Muscularis mucosa, Submucosa (Meissner/Submucosal plexus), Muscularis propria (inner circular muscle, Auerbach'/Myenteric plexus, outer longitudinal muscle)
Branchial arch 6 nerve
X (like 4, 6+4 = X)
Type III collagen
reticulin - skin, blood vessels, uterus, fetal tissue, granulation tissue
Reflex arc
muscle stretch --> intrafusal stretch --> Ia afferent stimulation --> alpha-motor neuron stimulation --> reflexal extrafusal contraction
Left recurrent laryngeal wraps where
arch of the aorta
Most common locatio nfor vertebral disk herniation
between L5 and S1
Brachial plexus injury leading to Saturday night palsy
Radial nerve of posterior cord
Potter's syndrome
Bilateral renal agenesis
duodenum to poximal 2/3 of transverse colon
Innervation above pectinate line
Middle cerebral artery supplies
lateral aspect of brain, Broca's and Wernicke's speech areas
Brachial plexus injury leading to difficulty flexing elbow
Musculocutaneous nerve of lateral cord
Consequence of lesion in right parietal lobe
Spatial neglect
Sign of unilateral lesion of cerebellum
Patient falls toward the lesion
CN VIII function
hearing and balance
Function of microglia
Myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus function
coordinates motility via parasympathetic effector neurons between muscle layers
Contents of cavernous sinus
Internal carotid artery, CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI, postganglionic sympathetic fibers en route to the orbit
CN VI function
abducts eye with lateral rectus (abducens)
Mesoderm becomes
Dura mater, muscle, bone, cardiovascular/lymphatic system, blood, uorgenital, serous linings, spleen, adrenal cortex
Muscles of larynx innervated by
Notochord becomes
nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disk
Lateral striate arteries supply
internal capsule, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus
Brachial plexus injury leading to wrist drop
Posterior cord (C7)
kneecap dermatome
Foregut blood supply
Passage for CN II
optic canal
Meckel's diverticilum from
persistance of vitelline duct or yolk stalk
Function of hypothalamic setpate nucleus
Sexual urges (Septate=Sex)
Indirect hernia usual age
INdirect = INfants
Number of spinal nerves
31 pairs (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal)
Branchial arch 3 derivatives
Greater horn of hyoid, stylopharyngeus
Nucleus solitarius
CN VII, IX, X (Sensory only)
Lower border of spinal cord in adults
CN IV function
abducts, introverts, and depresses eye (superior oblique muscle)
Contents of paracortex of lymph node
T cells
Fetal milestones within weeks 3-8
Neural tube, heart beats, oragnogenesis, susceptible to teratogens
Nissl bodies location
rought ER of neurons; Not in axon or axon hillock
Upper and lower lesion paralysis with weakness of upper and lower face
LMN lesion
Egg development
Primary oocytes being meiosis I and arrested in prophase until ovulation; Meiosis II is arrested in Metaphase until fertilization
Borders of hesselbach's triangle
Inferio epigastric artery, lateral border of rectus abdominis, inuinal ligament
Brachial plexus injury leading to waiter's tip
Upper Trunk (C5/C6)
CN XI function
head turning, shoulder shrugging
Aorta, thoracic duct, and azygous cross diaphragm at what level
Function of ventromedial nucleus
Satiety (without ventromedial nucleus you'll grow ventrally and medially --> you'll get fat)
Vision defect with right optic radiation lesion
left hemianopsia with macular sparing
Common location of lumbar puncture
Between L3-L4 or L4-L5
Branchial arch 4 derivatives
thytoid/cricoid/arytenoids/corniculate/cuneiform cartilages, most pharyngeal constrictor muscles, cricothyroid, levator veli palatini
Spermatic cord layers
External spermatic fascia, cremasteric muscle and fascia, internal spermatic fascia
Male homologue of greater vestibular glands (of Bartholini)
Bulbourethral glands (Cowper)
secretory product of Zona reticularis
sex hormones
Function of lateral geniculate nucleus
visual (Lateral to Look)
Loss of dorsiflexion
Common peroneal nerve (L4-S2)
Thymus apperance
Dense cortex (immature), Pale medulla (mature), Hassall's corpuscles
Stapes derived from
2nd branchial arch
Diphragm derived from
Septum transversum, Pleuroperitoneal folds, Body wall, Dorsal mesentery of esophagus (Several Parts Build Diaphragm)
Nephrotic syndrome malfunction
loss of basement membrane charge
Male homologue of labia minora
ventral shaft of penis
Function of ependymal cells
Inner lining of ventricles
Structures perforating diaphragm and level
T8-IVC, T10-Esophagus/VaGus, T12-Aorta/thoracic duct/azygous vein (I 8 10 EGgs AT 12)
Consequence of lesion in Wernicke's area
Sensory (fluent/receptive) aphasia (Wernickes=Wordy) with poor comprehension

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