This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Pre-AP World History Final Exam


undefined, object
copy deck
Roman law
this Roman contribution delt mostly with the rights of Roman citizens; one belief was that it should be fair and equal to all people
Cambyses's successor, ruler of the Persian empire; siezed the throne with the help of an elite group of Persian soldiers: the Ten Thousand Immortals; established an efficient and well-organized administration; increased the size of the already immense Persian empire; failed to conquer Greece; divided his kingdom into 20 provinces for easier ruling
Fall of Rome
contributing factors to this event include: military interference in politics, civil war and unrest, moving the capital and division of the empire, low confidence, disloyalty, contrast between rich and poor, poor harvests, gold and silver drain, inflation, and threat of attack; immediate causes were pressure from Huns, invasion by Germanic tribes and by Huns, sack of Rome, and conquest by invaders
Indus River Valley Civilization
located in South Asia in an area known as a subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh); northern migrants may have made their way to this area through a pass in the Hindu Kush mountains; domesticated sheep and goats here; built many cities, largest include Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro, and Harappa; cities planned on a precise grid system; featured an area called a citadel with major buildings of city; seperate residential districts constructed of oven-baked bricks cut in standard form; religion may be linked to modern Hindu culture
a type of government in which the ruler is also a divine figure; used in Egypt, people believed that their pharaoh bore full responsibility of their kingdom's well-being; Egyptians believed that it was the pharaoh who caused the sun to rise, the crops to grow, and the Nile to flood
wise and able statesman of Athens during its golden age; held onto support for 32 years; had 3 goals: 1) strengthen Athenian democracy 2) hold and strengthen the empire 3) glorify Athens; introduced direct democracy; created the Delian League; created the Parthenon
also known as Asia Minor; a huge peninsula in modern-day Turkey the juts out into the Black and Mediterranean seas; rich in timber and agriculture, home to separate Hittite city-states
homo habilis
2.5 million to 1.5 million B.C.; found in East Africa, brain size 700 cm³; first to make stone tools, theirs were made out of lava rock
philosopher who had careers as a wrestler and poet before he became a philosopher; studied with Socrates; opened the Academy in Athens
according to the Torah, the man who led the Hebrews out of slavery; it is told that the Egyptian pharaoh was threatened by the number of Hebrews in Egypt and ordered all Hebrew male babies to be killed; Moses was saved from this massacre, went on to lead Jews out of Egypt
born into the clan of a powerful Meccan family, raised by grandfather and uncle; became business manager for Khadijah whom he later married; often spent time alone meditatiing; believed that Gabriel came and spoke to him, began new religion called Islam
one of three groups who inhabited the Italian penninsula who battled for control agains the Latins and the Greeks; native to northern Italy; strongly influenced by the development of Roman civilization
son of King David, the popular Israeli leader; most powerful of Hebrew kings; built a trading empire and beautified the capital city, Jerusalem; built a great temple in Jerusalem to glorify God; home for the Ark of the Covenant which contained the tablets of Moses's law; his building projects strained the kingdom's finances and caused discontent among the people, led to the kingdom splitting into two after the king's death
the lowest group of people in the caste system; they were deemed the most impure because of their work: butchers, gravediggers, collecters of trash; it was believed that eaven their touch endangered the ritual purity of others
archon who is believed to have created Athen's first written code of laws that were harsh and severe
the art of beautiful handwriting; used because the depiction of living creatures was prohibited in Muslim culture
a series of rulers from a single family; the type of ruling found in China and in ancient Sumerian city-states
Roman religion
early Romans worshiped powerful spirits or divine forces called numina; each family had a guardian spirit; government and religion linked,ahd public worship ceremonies; later, many Romans became interested in religions of Asia
a building meant to glorify Athens, commisioned by Pericles; 23,000 square-foot building that housed a statue of Athena which contained precious metals like gold and ivory, stood 38 ft. tall
peasants forced to stay on the land where they worked; prisoners of the Spartans (mostly Messenians); their revolt caused Sparta to become a stronger city-state
a government ruled by a few powerful people
a prime minister who was Persian; served under the Seljuks
a Roman town whose volcano eruption preserved many buildings and art
the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible which contains the early history of the Hebrews; considered the most sacred writings in Jewish tradition; consist mainly of stories told to teach lessons
most powerful traders along the Mediterranean after 1100 B.C.; never united into a country, founded a number of wealthy city-states around the Mediterranean which sometimes competed with one another; great legacy: the Alphabet
one of the first apostles who spread the teachings of Jesus throughout Palestine and Syria
the embalming and drying of the corpse to prevent it from decaying
Mary Leakey
Archaeologist, born 1913, died 1996; discovered hominid footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania in East Africa. These hominids are known as australopithecines.
Civil service system
government jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations; created by Chinese emperors; employed more than 130,000 people
a state of perfect understanding and a break from the chain of reincarnations
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire
Roman government
balanced combination of a monarchy, aristocracy, and a democracy; two officials called consuls ruled with limited power; senate with 300 members; dictator who had absolute power
a group of Indo-European speakers who occupied Anatolia; banded together all of their city-states to create a Hittite empire; lasted for 450 years, occupied Babylon; borrowed ideas and traits from the Mesopotamian people that they encountered; their chariots brought them victory over other civilizations
Neolithic Age
Also known as the New Stone Age, from 8000 to 3000 B.C. (approximately); People learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops and raise animals.
an Italian poet who wrote the most famous work of Latin literature, the Aeneid
followers of Muhammad's example; disliked the Umayyads
good or bad deeds which follow one from one reincarnation to the next; it influences speciific life circumstances such as caste, health, etc, according to Hindu belief
a city in northern Arabia with a simple house of worship called a Ka'aba; was an important stop on the trade route because it brought religious pilgrims
a belief in a single god; first introduced by the Hebrews who beleived that Yahweh was the one and only God
a group of seminomadic people who came from the steppes north of the Caucasus; herded cattle, sheep, and goats; tamed horses and rode into battle in chariots; their languages are the ancestors of monay modern languages such as English, Spanish, Persian and Hindi
word for skin color in the Aryan language; original name for the groups in the caste system
a Chaldean king who restored Babylon and built a beautiful palace which housed the famous hanging gardens
Philip II
king of Macedonia who was a brilliant general and ruthless politician; transformed peasants into well-trained professional army; conquered Greece
also called low-relief where images project from a flat background
Peloponnesian War
war fought between two of Greece's city-states: Athens and Sparta; each had its own advantage, but Sparta eventually won; in the end, Athens lost its empire, power, and wealth; general confidence in democratic government began to falter
a group of people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.; leading city called Mycenae which could withstand any attack; nobles lived in splendor; these people invaded many surrounding kingdoms;
nomads who lived on the Arabian desert
Buddhist doctrine or law, one of the "Three Jewels" of Buddhism
Old/Middle/New Kingdom
Pax Romana
means Roman peace; a period of peace and prosperity; at this time, the Roman Empire included more than 3 million square miles and its population numbered between 60 and 80 million people
a part of the army that destroyed the Assyrian Empire; these people restored Babylon and made it their capital; Babylon became the center of a new empire
a kingdom tho the north of Greece; had rough mountains and a cold climate; most of these nobles thought of themselves as Greek, but the Greeks looked down upon these foreigners
a Persian prophet and religous reformer who created an answer for suffering and chaos in the world; believed that two spiritual armies fought for possesion of one's soul; taught ideas similar to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Paleolithic Age
Also known as the Old Stone Age; lasted from about 2.5 million to 8000 B.C. Oldest stone chopping tools date back to this era. Much of this age occurred during the Ice Age.
a group of three leaders; one example is Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey
homo erectus
lived from 1.6 million to 30,000 B.C.; found in Africa, Asia, and Europe; brain size 1,000 cm³; nicknamed "upright man", more intelligent and adaptable than previous; used intelligence to develop technology; first to use fire; may have developed the beginnings of spoken language
king of the Visigoths who marched his troops across the Alps toward Rome and put the city under siege; stormed Rome in 410 and plundered it for 3 days
a philosopher who questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge; came close to summarizing all of the knowledge of his time; created a school called the Lyceum
discovered by Donald Johanson; unusually complete adult female skeleton found in Ethiopia; lived around 3.5 million years ago
Hammurabi's Code
a code developed to unify diverse groups within the Babylonian Empire; this code was made up of existing rules, judgments, and laws which were engraved into stone and placed all over his empire; there were 282 specific laws dealing with anything one could imagine- from divorce to the trading of livestock; the code is infamous for its severity
House of Wisdom
a combination library, academy, and translation center opened by Caliph al-Ma'mun where scholars of different cultures and beliefs worked side by side
one of the three most important gods in the new Hinduism; known as the creator of the world
meaning "submission to the will of Allah"; created by a man named Muhammad who believed that he was the last of the prophets and that there was one and only God, all others should be abandoned
the Buddha's word for release from selfishness and pain; Buddhists believe that by following the Eightfold Path, they may reach this state
a Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy called Stoicism; they believed in a divine power that ruled the universe; thought that people should live a virtuous life in harmony with natural law; promoted social unity and encouraged its followers to focus on things that they could control
a powerful seafaring people who dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean from about 2000 to 1400 B.C.; lived on Crete and produced some of the finest painted pottery of the time; ruled by King Minos
Trojan War
most stories of this war were fictional; fought between the Mycenaean kings and the Trojans; the Greek army is said to have destroyed Troy because a Trojan youth had kidnapped the wife of a Greek king
the resting place after death for Egyptian kings or pharaohs; used remarkable engineering achievements, didn't use the wheel
the strong-willed king of Upper Egypt who united all of Egypt; wore a crown which combined that of Upper and Lower Egypt; shrewdly established capital of Memphis near where Upper and Lower Egypt met (first Egyptian dynasty)
remains, like tools, jewelry, or other human-made objects that give us a hint about how earlier humans lived.
playwrite who wrote the first great comedies of the stage, including the Birds and Lysistrata
this Chinese creation sold for so much money, that the Cinese were willing to go through a difficult process to make it; it took more that 2,000 cocoons to make a pound of this material
founder of a school that taught the belief of Epicureanism; this belief stated that the universe was composed of atoms and ruled by gods who had no interest in humans; the only real objects were those that the 5 senses perceived; main goal of humans is to achieve harmony of body and mind
"party" of Ali; believed that the caliph or person most responsible for spreading Muhammad's message should be one related to Muhammad
River Valley of China
isolated from other civilizations due to natural barriers; civilizations formed along main rivers Huang He and Yangtze; farmable land on plain between the two rivers; Xia Dynasty ruled; developed writing, social classes, religious beliefs and artistry (ch. 2, sec. 4 for more info)
Persia's king who began invading neighboring kingdoms in Iran; this king's soldiers wore a specialized uniform and had many consecutive victories; this king was respectful of the people he conquered; the people he conquered enjoyed remarkable freedom... Babylon even opened its gates peacefully to him in 539 B.C.
Roman fighting force that spread Rome's power around the Mediterranean; these groups were self-sufficient
China's most influencial scholar; believed that government could be restored in China and that society should be organized around 5 basic relationships: 1) ruler and subject 2) father and son 3) husband and wife 4) older brother and younger brother 5) friend and friend
Caste System
a social system that consisted of 4 major groups originally known as varnas; the four basic groups eventually evolved into more complex groups with hundreds of subdivisions; began in Aryan society in India
Turkish slaves who became a powerful force in the Abbasid Empire
Five Pillars
beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage
a government ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning families
these types of reeds grew in the Nile's marshy delta; the reeds were split into narrow strips, dampened, and pressed; then they were glued into paper-like sheets
cannot be traced back to one founder with a single set of ideas; holy book called Vedas; Hindu teachers meditated on the Vedas and came up with questions the were written down to become the Upanishads; the goal in Hindu life is to reach a state of moksha where you will have perfect understanding; they believe in reincarnation and karma
one of the most powerful thinkers in history; also one of the strongest critics of the Sophists; believed that absolute standards did exist for truth and justice; developed Socratic method (question and answer approach of teaching)
characteristics of civilization
the 5 characteristics are 1) advanced cities 2) specialized workers 3) complex institutions 4) record keeping 5) advanced technology (more info pg. 18)
Good Emperors
this group of emperors included Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
a Greek-speaking people that, according to tradition, migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of their Mycenaean civilization
today called algebra; invented by Al-Khwarizmi who studied Indian resources
successor or deputy for Muhammad who led the Muslims
the body of law that regulates family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims
Alexander the Great
the son of Philip II who took over his military campaign; was taught by Aristotle; strong and powerful leader who defeated Persia and created a huge empire; named several cities after himself (Alexandria)
Roman emperor who fought 3 rivals for his title; prayed for divine help and recieved it; won against his emperors; got baptized and ended the persecution of the Christians; Christianity became the Roman empire's official religion
Darius's son who led a huge Persian army and fleet against Greece
known as the greatest Greek storyteller; was blind, composed narrative poems called epics which celebrated heroic deeds; known for the Iliad and the Odyssey
Hellenistic scientist who accurately estimated the value of pi, explained the law of the lever, invented a special type of screw and a catapult
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
Hellenistic period
the blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences, a result of Alexander's empire; centered around Alexandria in Egypt; a grand library where scholars, teachers, and students gathered to read and learn; astronomical advances were made, as well as mathmatics, physics, philosophy, and art
born in Bethlehem, a Jew and a Roman subject; baptized by the prophet known as John the Baptist; began a public ministry and taught the belief of God and heaven
an empire based on tolerence and diplomacy; relied on a strong military to back up their policies; had massive amounts of copper, lead, gold, silver, and blue lapis lazuli
direct democracy
a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives; an important legacy of Periclean Athens
a government in which kings or monarchs ruled
a mutual promise between God and the Hebrew people; God promised to protect Abraham and his descendants if Abraham promised to obey God
a trusted statesman who outlawed debt slavery and allowed all citizens to participate and debate policies in the Athenian assembly; he introduced the legal concept that any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers; initiated a profitable overseas trade and demand for these products
a fearsome fighting formation where foot soldiers stood side by side holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism; seperated from society for most of his life by his father, at age 29, ventured outside of his palace and interpereted what he saw to mean that only through religious faith may one find happiness; wandered the forests of India for 6 years seeking enlightenment; debated with other religious seekers; believed in 4 Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path where you aimed to reach nirvana
a form of government in which power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote and select their leaders
another of the three most important gods in Hinduism; known as preserver of the world
God, in Arabic
follow the Eightfold Path and the Four Noble Truths; worship Siddhartha Gautama or Buddha; follow the dharma which is the Buddhist doctrine or law; Buddha rejected the caste system, so many of the earliest followers were laborers and craftspeople
Fertile Crescent
in Southwest Asia, most fertile farming land in the area; rich silt creates the perfect land for farming in an area surrounded by desert
people of the book
the name for Jews and Christians for whom the Muslims had religious tolerance; called this because each religion had a holy book with teachings similar to that of the Qur'an
an Athenian leader who introduced more reforms to Athens; made Athens a full democracy by breaking up the powers of nobility; increased the power of the assembly by allowing all citizens to submit laws and created the Council of Five Hundred
an ancient Greek city famous for military prowess, Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
a structure designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns
Classical art
an art form centered around order, balance, and proportion; Greek
one of Alexandria's most renowned astronomers who incorrectly placed the earth at the center of the solar system; this view was accepted for the next 14 centuries
destroyer of the world (Hindu god)
the city where Muhammad resettled because of the hostility he faced in Mecca
Punic Wars
war between Rome and Carthage in which a leader named Hannibal came from Africa to Europe with 60 elephants; he won several battles against Rome, but eventually lost
Donald Johanson
anthropologist who worked in Africa searching for fossils; 1974, found nearly complete woman skeleton
a city-state with a fundamental political unit in ancient Greece

Deck Info