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CD 668 Chapter 6 Terms


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African American English Vernacular
A variety of English spoken by many African Americans that is characterized by its phonological, syntactic and pragmatic features
Cohesive Device
A way to link the content of different parts of a conversation through the use of pronouns, ellipsis, connectives, anaphora, and other conversational strategies.
Communicative Competence
Linguistic competence plus knowledge of pragmatics.
A systematic subvariety of a language spoken by a sizeable group of speakers sharing characteristics such as geographical origin or social class.
Piaget's concept meaning the inability to take another person's perspective. Egocentric speech is speech that is not adapted to listener needs.
The omission of a word or words from an utterance that would be necessary for a complete syntactic construction, but which are not necessary for understanding.
Illocutionary Intent
The goal or intentions of a speaker, (which may be to persuade, inform, or make a request, for instance.)
Indirect Request
A form of request whose surface structure does not indicate that the utterance is a request.
Locutionary Act
The act of saying a sentence that makes sense and refers to something.
Perlocutionary Effect
The effect that any perticular utterance has on a listener.
Referential Communication
The manner in which one talks about a particular referent among an array of possible referents.
A form of language that varies according to participants, settings, and topics.
A speech form that occurs as part of a routinized event
(e.g. greeting of "trick or treat" on Halloween)
Abstract knowledge about familiar, everyday events.
Speech Acts
Utterances used by speakers in order to accomplish things in the world (such as requesting or apologizing).
Child Directed Speech
The special speech register used when talking to children. Includes short sentences, greater repetition and questioning, and higher and more variable intonation than that of speech addressed to adults.
Classical Conditioning
A form of associative learning in which previously neutral stimuli (e.g. words), through repeated pairing with other stimuli, come to elicit similar responses.
The view of cognitive psychologists who believe that children develop cognitively through their own active participation in the world around them.
Language Acquisition Device
The innate mental mechanism that, according to linguistic theorists, makes language acquisition possible.
Language Faculty
A general term that refers to the innate ability to acquire language. Linguists believe that humans, and not other animals, are possessed of a language faculty.
Learnability Problem
The fact that children master their native tongues across the world in spite of the supposed indecipherable nature of language has come to be called the learnability problem by nativists who believe that children cannot learn language from what they hear.
Negative Evidence
Evidence concerning language errors or unacceptable combinations of sounds or words.
Neglected Children
Children whose caregivers have not given them sufficient physical, emotional or intellectual support to ensure healthy development.
Poverty of Imagination
In linguistic theory, the notion that just because one cannot imagine how language might be learned, this does not prove that it was not learned (innate).
Presentation of a stimulus (verbal or pictorial) meant to facilitate the retreival of a target response. A subject who has seen the words hospital and doctor will recognize the word nurse more quickly than a subject who has not been similary primed.
A form of parental utterance that restates the child's immature utterance in acceptable adult form.
Text Presentation
According to the GB theory, the type of language that children learning language are exposed to. It contains no negative evidence.
Additive Bilingualism
Acquisition of a second language while retaining one's original language.
Adolescent Register
Special forms of speech used by adolescents to mark themselves as adolescents.
Alphabetic Principle
The basic principle that underlies our orthographic system: Letters of the alphabet represent sounds of our spoken language.
The potential of a process to be completed with great speed after long patience, without allocating to it conscious attention.
Bottom-Up Model
A term taken from artificial intelligence to depict the direction of processing. In bottom up models, reading is conceptualized as dependent on accurate decoding of the letter strings that make up words.
Deep Orthography
An orthography (spelling system) in which there is a relatively variable relation between graphemes and phonemes.
Shallow Orthography
an orthography in which there exists a close relationship (one-to-one) between graphemes and the phonemes they represent.
Any one of a number of conditions that lead to a specific impairment of learning to read; dyslexias are typically linguistic processing problems, rather than difficulties with perception.
Emergent Literacy
Children't understanding about reading and writing before they can actually acquire these skills.
Environmental Print
Writing found on traffic signs, food and household items, packaging, etc. Often the first words a child recognizes.
Expository Writing
Writing that depends upon the logic, rather than chronology, as its organizational principle.
Decontextualized Language
Language that makes reference to people, events and experiences that are not part of the immediate context.
Discourse that is specific to particular contexts and functions. Genres are characterized by consistencies in form and content.
The actual graphic forms or elements of the writing system: the letters of the alphabet, for example.
Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondence Rules
Rules that define the relationship between a letter or group of letters and the sounds they represent.
Settings in which a group of learners are all taught a new language through the medium of the new language.
Invented Spelling
Systematic, rule-governed spelling that is created (invented) by developing writers.
Letter Recognition
Detection of the features of a letter.
Narrative Mode
Thinking that reflects human intentions and is organized around chronology.
Stories, usually about the past. A minimum narrative consists of two sequential clauses, temporally ordered, about a single past event.
Word games, usually in the form of questions, that play on linguistic ambiguity.
Separation of the stream of speech into its constituents, for instance breaking words into syllables and phonemes.
Subtractive Bilingualism
Bilingualism characterized by the loss of one's original language while learning a second language.
Top-Down Model
Indicates that processing moves from the level of concepts downward to basic level data. Top-down reading models conceptualize reading as involving the generation and testing of hypotheses.
Topic Associated Narrative
Narrative that links several episodes thematically.
Topic Focused Narrative
A narrative about a single person or event, that has a clear beginning, middle and end. Contrasts with Topic Associated Style.
Word Recognition
The recognition that letter strings represent conventional words.
Whole Language
A reading for meaning approach that stresses involvement with "whole", or meaningful, texts.

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