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Euro Civ-Age of Absolutism Vocab


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an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
a king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society.
Divine Right Theory
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on Earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Mandate of Heaven
in chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority.
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Portestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities.
a philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be known for certain.
a french government official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and administer justice.
War of the Spanish Succession
a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of of European states fought to prevent the Courbon family from controlling Spain as well as France.
an adoption of the social, political, and economic institutions of Western-especially European or American-countries.
a landowning noble of Russia.
a body of representatives that makes laws for a nation.
Magna Carta
a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in A.D. 1215.
the period of Charles II's rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government.
Habeas Corpus
a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal.
Glorious Revolution
the bloodless overthrow of the english King James II and his replacement by William and Mary.
Constitutional Monarchy
a system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law.
a group of advisers or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions.
1st people in russia?
invaded russia in 9-10th century. made their capital kiev.
northern chinese that invaded russia in 1200's. made their capital city moscow.
a whole combobilation of mongols/vikings/slovs that came up with the name RUSSIA,
Ivan the Great(1400's russia)
took back all russian land and defeated mongols. expanded russia to the urals mountains(east russia) marries last niece of byzantine empire(turkey) she brings orthodox chritianity and cyrillic alphabet still used in russia today.
Ivan the terrible
attemptsto be good czar but temper gets him in trouble. extended russian territory to serbia(asia), is an AUTOCRAT, kills his own son at the dinner table and then gets throne out. he is later replaced by Michael Komenov(1600's) because he's very neutral.
Peter the Great (russia)
he travels eastern europe in cognito(even though he is nothing like the eastern man he was more tall and burly) to see what they wre dong then westernizes russia (Window on the West, ie. Baltic Sea)
a conglomerate of vikings, angles, saxons, and germans. has NEVER had an english ruler.
war of roses
medival/civil war, fight between 2 families for the english throne, killed eachother off.
Henry Tudor (post w or r)
takes over after the war of roses. is from Wales. calls himself Henry VII(7th). didnt like many people, ruled with 'iron fist,' brought country together and stabilized it.
Henry VIII(8th, henry tudors son)
took over after henry VII dies, HAS SIX WIVES. changes english religion to Protestant so he is allowed a divorce, BANKRUPTS ENGLAND, has 3 legitamate children- edward(youngest dies at 16ish), elizabeth (Protestant, second youngest), Mary (oldest, RCC- BLOODY MARY!)
enlightened despot
refers to the absolutist rule of an enlightened monarch
ABOVE. superlative in quality. supreme power.
prime minister/chancellor
the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system
Oliver Cromwell
English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
English Restoration
began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Commonwealth of England that followed the English Civil War. The term Restoration may apply both to the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and to the period immediately following the event.
Petition of Right
a major English constitutional document, which sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing. The Petition of Right was produced by the English Parliament in the run-up to the English Civil War. It was passed by Parliament in May, 1628, and given the royal assent by Charles I in June of that year.
English Bill of Rights
an act of the Parliament of England, whose title is An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown.
Scientific Revolution
a period when new ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a rejection of doctrines that had prevailed from Ancient Greece through the Middle Ages, and laid the foundation of modern science.
Sir Isaac Newton
an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian who is perceived and considered by a substantial number of scholars and the general public as one of the most influential men in history. laid the groundwork for most of classical mechanics.
astronomy vs. astrology
Astronomy, the study of objects and phenomena beyond the Earth's atmosphere, is a science and is a widely studied academic discipline. Astrology, which uses the apparent positions of celestial objects as the basis for psychology, prediction of future events, and other esoteric knowledge, is not widely regarded as science and is typically defined as a form of divination
Thirty Years War
1618–1648. no accurate reason for the war. caused mass destruction.
a religious and philosophical belief that a supreme being created the universe, and that this (and religious truth in general) can be determined using reason and observation of the natural world alone, without a need for either faith or organized religion.

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