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History Spivey 2


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The Jungle
About the meat packing industry; written by Upton Sinclair; his goal was to expose the hard working conditions in the labor field, it actually led to questions on the sanitation of meat; "Aimed for America's heart and hit in the stomach"; got meat inspection laws passed
The Masses
A socialist magazine that was run out of business because of the anti-war sentiment that it published about WWI
Espionage and Sedititon Acts
Federal laws that were passed shortly after the US entering World War I that said it was a crime for a person to convey information with the intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies. Also forbade Americans to use "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, flag, or armed forces during the war.
Attitudes and Beliefs of the Progressive Era
Attitudes are optimistic because the progressive age set forth in trying to help fix what had went wrong in the Gilded Age. The people wanted change and to see success
Robber Barrons
The process of running other businesses out of business so that one's own business can prosper; includes Rockefeller and Morgan
October 29, 1929
Known as Black Tuesday, the day the Stock Market crashed
Mary McLeod Bethune
Administrator of the National Youth Administration for Negros, head of the Black Cabinet
Symbolizes sex; very popular in America; talked a lot about sex: "Repressed sexual urges cause trouble"; make sure you're having sex and make sure it's good sex; psychologist
Reasons for Growth of Cities
Transportation allows people to travel to the cities, they are able to get on a steam ship and travel to Ellis Island, the transportation revolution allows us to move stuff to and from the city, it allows the people in the rural areas to ship the food into the cities, less is being grown in the cities and more is being shipped in from rural areas; agricultural technology requires fewer and fewer people to grow and harvest crops so they move to the cities to work in factories; first and best Broadway shows, if you want to be on the cutting edge you want to be in bigger cities
John D. Rockefeller
Extraordinarily crooked, would find ways to screw over his customers and competitors. Laws were made because of him, to prevent him from doing anything else; made his money in standard oil
Young women, around 19, and expensive; wore short skirts, smoked, had short hair, into fashion, go to speak easies, wore much less clothing
Red Scare (1st)
The workers of the United States get involved in the workforce; "The Reds are trying to take over the country"; Palmer Raids-Arrests 6000 people; 249 aliens deported to Russia on the "Red Ark"
Hardings Economic Policies
Wanted to return to normalcy
Women's Christian Temperance Union; Christian women, one the women's special interest groups; focused on temperance; grew into a very radical movement
Women Expanding Their Roles
The spheres started to merge together because of education and education because the economy called for more people to need to work. The women changed from working in the private sphere (home, domestic) to the public sphere (everything else)
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian anarchists; carrying guns when arrested; accused of a robbery and a murder; the facts were never clear enough to definitely say that the men committed the crime; a reasonable doubt that they might not have but the many appeal were overridden because of the fact that they were Italian anarchist; executed for being Italian anarchists
Dust Bowl
A drought hit farms in the Oklahoma area and wind picks up which causes the dry soil to cover homes, land, and crops. In result, the farmers leave and drive out on Route 66 to California in hopes of finding new jobs
Internation Workers of the World; picketed white house; known as Wobblies; jailed, beaten, and tarred
League of Nations
Wilson's "grandchild"; precursor to the United Nations; different countries have representatives that come to negotiations and discuss important problems; America never joined because of Article 10 (The countries who signed on to be part of the League of Nations would agree to respect and preserve each other's territory)
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Author of the Great Gatsby and Tales of the Jazz Age; coined the term "Jazz Age"
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
One of the worst, if not the worst tragedy ever to occur in the workplace; sweat shop located on middle floor of building; people would smoke while they made clothes because they weren't allowed to take breaks; doors were padlocked, fire started and gets in the way of people trying to escape, 146 people end up burned or jumped out of the windows to escape burning to death, After, people realized something must be done to stop the poor conditions in factories
Gospel of Wealth
Everyone's responsibility is to get as wealthy as they can, "the man who dies rich, dies disgraced", before you die you should give your money away, not die wealthy
Rags to Riches
Stories written by Horatio Alger Jr.; idea is that somebody starts off very poor and works themselves up to riches; most people only dreamed of this; was a symbol of progress
Committee on Public Information
Used to keep dissent down; a committee set up by Woodrow Wilson that will try to influence and manipulate the media and propaganda; wanted to convince the public that war was good
War Guilt Clause
Germany is the sole country that is left standing of the enemies; it is all their fault; and they are responsible for the war; Germany owes 33 billion in war reparations; its owes all the other countries this money for damages done in/by the war
U-Boat attacked; 128 killed; led to the Sussex pledge where Germany says they won't attack with submarines
New Deal
Franklin Roosevelt's Administration; "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself"; would do radio addresses weekly to talk to the public about his plans, would recognize the "forgotten man"; never ends the depression but he manages to keep the US alive long enough to get them to place and time when the depression ends
Differences Between Old and New Immigrants
Old-Protestants (WASP-English, Scottish, German, White Anglo Saxon Protestant) New-PIGS (Polish Italian Greek Slavs); differences in language, religion, culture, customs, and events
Submarines used by the Germans; they have to give a warning before they attack; they must come out of the water and say they are going to attack; but the German's won't give warning because it negates their strategic involvement
Hoover's Economic Policies
Wanted to get America through or out of the depression
Anti-everything expect themselves; they hate immigrants and Jews, not just blacks; they considered themselves progressive because they saw a problem and wanted to make a solution for it.
Rape of Belguim
Germany treks through Belgium (a neutral country) to get France; Great Britain declares war on Germany; encourages the United States to get involved; contributes to the causes of the war
Alphabet Soup Programs
New Deal initiatives nicknamed this because of the many new acts that were abbreviated to acronyms and aimed at helping people get jobs and job training (included the SSA, AAA)
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney general; most at the core of the red scare; wanted to be president; was looking for a cause to put him into the public eye and goes after the Reds
A stance for the banning of alcohol; mostly supported by women. The 18th Amendment bans it, but the 21st Amendment reverses it
Lost Generation
During World War I and shortly after, people during this time experienced disillusionment; authors from the time include Hemmingway, Faulkner, Edna St. Vincent Millay
Jane Addams
One of the founders of the American Settlement House Movement (Middle class, educated women would live in the inner cities with immigrants and would be there for support)
Settlement Houses
Offered social services often aimed towards urban poor; the first social work in America; provided childcare, English language training, literacy training, food and shelter; helpful even though it seemed condescending
Coolidges Economic Policies
Pro-business; the business of America is good for the business
Bank Runs
Banks had not been operating with very good sense, when the people realized the banks were going bankrupt, they realized their life savings were going to be lost so they would do bank runs (people would swarm into the bank to try to get their money out of the bank, but only some people could get their money, and the rest of the people were out of luck, the banks would go under)
How prosperity laid the ground for the Great Depression
Americans bought on credit, bought stocks on credit, real estate boom in Florida went bust, rich people owned everything and poor people spent little, farmers would buy high production on credit in order to support the war
Goals and Programs of the New Deal Administration
Find and create jobs (CCC, WPA, NYA), protect money (FDIC), and protect the Stock Market (SEC), provide Social Security (SSA)
Woman Suffragists
Women wanted the right to vote; picketed the White House; looked for support from Woodrow Wilson
Andrew Carnegie
An immigrant from Scotland (lower middle class); has a very strong family, made his money in steel; "rags to riches", treated the labor unions poorly; came up with "The Philosophy of Wealth"
Francis Perkins
FDR appoints her to be secretary of labor; the first female cabinet holder; inspected factories after the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
A group of tents/tarps that were called this because they blamed the president for their poor economic condition
Woodrow Wilson
Progressive President; believes that the government should do something to protect the little people); 1913-1921; democrat; three constitutional amendments passed during his presidency; fair to say that World War I was a progressive war
Austrailian Ballot
Intended to keep people from getting beaten up for voting for the wrong party; also known as the Secret Ballot
Woodrow Wilsons wants out of WWI
A League of Nations; self determination; a democracy for the way; got a league of nations but didn't enter it so it fell through
Teddy Roosevelt
President for eight years; republican, progressive president; rough riders captain, trust buster (40 suits; broke up monopolies, enforced anti monopoly deal, takes on the robber baron); gives us the National Park System; takes on the role of protecting the people, protecting the environment
Ellis Island
Most immigrants during this time came through here
Nativism Response To New Immigrants
Positive-Emma Lazarus welcomes them into the country; Negative-lowered wages, they took the jobs
Melting Pot
We all melt into one big American family; "take the immigrants and make them good true, American citizens", Isreal Zangwell coined the phrase
Zora Neale Hurston
Usually associated with the Harlem renaissance; drew her stories from real black life
Classical and blues musicians coming together to make music, one of the main symbols of the decade; the heart of one of the cultural conflicts/clashes of the decade; the term is slang for sex; minor laws were passed because of this; started in Louisiana
Reason for US Involvement in WWI
Britain's exaggeration about the Rape of Belgium (a neutral country) caused the Americans to become concerned with the war
Anti-alcohol campaign; got a big boost because of Germany's association with alcohol and beer; the alcohol is associated with the Germans; it is helping the Germans so many people want to boycott the alcohol more
American System (Of Manufacturing)
Term used to describe the Assembly Line; most associated with Henry Ford and the car; allowed mass production.
Woodrow Wilson
"He kept us out of War": campaign slogan for 1916 election; gave the "Fourteen Points speech" (included Self determination-the people get to determine what their government is going to look like and the League of Nations); believe d that if the US joined the war would could help the world be shaped for democracy
Margaret Sanger
Coined the term "Birth Control"; jailed under Comstock Laws (anti-obscenity laws), started on this because she watched her mother have many children and then die young; very influential in getting the funding for the Birth Control pill
Different Movements that were part of the Progressive Era
Secret ballot, civil service examination, consumer protection laws,workman's comp., regulation of railroads, banks and industrys
Machine Governments
Groups of people who have gotten themselves extremely well organized that they have a strong hold on government and are able to pass off benefits to themselves and their family; Tammany Hall (democratic) the most well known
Problems Faced by the People and Gov in Growing cities
Malnutrition-food being imported isn't always the best, high poverty-immigrants come in very little, tenements-the worst, most crowded, and least sanitary apartment complexes, waste is often dumped in the streets because this is no trash collection or sewage system, no fire protection, police protection (adequate roads or road cleaning), or medical care, too many people are moving in too quickly.
Emma Lazarus
Granddaughter of German Jews; wrote "The New Colossus"; wanted immigrants to come to America; glad to accept them and welcome them into the country
Scopes Trial
About evolution; took place in Dayton, Tennessee-Scopes, a local science teacher, teaches evolution knowing it's illegal and tries to get the law tested; it was a "test case", actually winds up getting trialed and convicted; Darrow made Bryan claim: the bible said God made the world in the seven days but seven days to God could be seven million years now
Harlem Renaissance
Outpouring of music and literature and art about blacks; there was a cultural clash in the Harlem Renaissance too; comes out of the black community but there are different generations involved
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Founded by Samuel Gompers; only skilled workers were allowed to unionize; would only unionize people the owners would listen to; focused on white man skilled labor; against immigration; a nativist organization
Upton Sinclair
Author of The Jungle; goal was to expose the hard working conditions in the labor field
Woman Suffrage Movement
Women picketed outside the White House; Woodrow Wilson didn't want to be embarrassed or humiliated but doesn't do anything at first; Alice Paul is arrested; the women go on a hunger strike but wind up being force fed; Wilson sends someone to talk to Paul about what would make them stop, she tells them voting rights and he replies "wait until the end of the war, and I will help you support suffrage"
Reasons for Technological/Industrial Growth
More people to work on industrial products; technology grew because of the assembly line; information must be tranferred quicker
Culture Clash between progressive/modern and tradition/conservative culture
Progressive/Modern-Bolder, Less Dressed, Jazz, Jitterbuging; Traditional/Conservative-Long dresses, more proper
Zimmerman Telegram
From the Germans to Mexico, intercepted by the British, translated and sent to America, called this because Zimmerman is their ambassador; a proposed alliance between Mexico and Germany, Mexico declines
Mostly Italian and Chinese, don't plan to stay in America, want to earn money and get back home; the money they earned they want to spend on buying land in their homelands
Immigration Restriction
Literacy Tests, Includes the National Origins Act ("Quota Act"; set quotes for the different immigrant countries; mostly Scottish and English were allowed in but little Jews and Catholics) Only 150,000 allowed in a year. There was no limit on Western Hemisphere immigrants
Eugene Debs
1918 Anti-war Speech; jailed in 1918 for the speech; Espionage effect; Socialist candidate for president; arrested for speaking out against the war
Samuel Gompers
Successful in getting the labor union some credit; only skilled workers were allowed to unionize with him
Black Cabinet
People who got together to discuss what was going on in the Black community and how the government should help them; would bring proposals to Roosevelt about what he could do to help the black community
Muckrakers/New Immigrants
Investigative journalists; write about the problems that are going on in the Gilded Age; named by Theodore Roosevelt; airing out the "manure" so that everyone could see it
The Roosevelts
Both had big hearts and wanted to help the people; he had the New Deal Administration and she was a voice for the blacks and provided an access to the president when the black cabinet wanted to speak

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