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WH2: Chapter 28 + 29: Vocab


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a liberal reformer who demanded free elections and was later elected prez
Emperor, resigned (1926-1989) japan experienced successes and tragedies
Leon Trotsky
assisted Lenin, committed Marxist revolutionary
Leopold Senghor
part of negritude movement, which rejected negative vies of Africa, wrote "Black Woman", later takes role in Senegals drive to independence and would serve as it's 1st president
atheism favored, Russian Orthodox Church was targeted as bad
german forces invade Poland WW2 begins
WWII ends
Nationalist party formed by Sun Yixian
wealthy peasants
Agriculture under Stalin
brought under control, forced peasant to give up land and live on state-owned, on collectives planned to provide tractors
Emiliano Zapata
southern Mexico, led a peasant revolt, understood the misery of peasant villagers, followers call Zapatistas
secret police force organized by the communists to start a reign of terror
V.I Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks, born in 1870 to a middle-class family, his family was branded as a threat to the state, which instilled a hatred for the czarist government, studied Karl Marx and spread his teachings, married to Nadzhda Krupskaya,
Arabism- movement to set up free Arabs from foreign domination and reunite in own state
Salt march
large farm owned & operated by peasants as a group
Soviet Union
multinational state made up of European and Asian peoples, all the member republics shared certain rights
Stalin's five-year plan.
impressive progress in heavy industry, the standard of living remained low, and consumer goods were scarce and poor in quality, agricultural collectives proved to be a disaster
racial separation and economic and political discrimination against non-whites a policy formerly practiced in the republic of South Africa (abolished in 1989)
Indian independence
Bolshevik Takeover
Nov, 1917- the red guards joined mutionous sailors from Russia fleets attacking provisional government, days later, Lenin overthrew gov., in petrograd gov meets at winter palace, the temp government failed, no struggle
council of workers & soldiers set up by Russia in 1917
government takeover of natural resources, allowed in the constitution of 1917
Leon Trotsky
committed Marxist revolutionary that assisted Lenin, turned the Red army into an effective fihting force, use d former czarist officers under watch of commissars
only high ranking woman to serve in Lenin's gov.
Amritsar Massacre
city in N. India, Commander General Reginald Dyer banned public meetings and arrived with 50 soldiers and no warning, in 10 minutes1,000 dead
Red Army
November 1917
Red Army joined sailors from the Russian fleet in attacking the provisional government. Matter of days Lenin overthrew a government that lacked any support
Pearl Harbor -> Japan bombs the shores of Hawaii
counterrevolutionaries who were loyal to the czar.
custom that allows men to have more than one wife
Egypts indep.
Negritude Movement
french speaking writers in w. africa & carribeans expressed pride in African roots (Leopold Sengnor)
March 1917
1st of 2 revolutions to topple Romanov dynasty
Sun Yixian's nationalist party
Indian Independence
killed farm animals, destroyed tools, burn crops, grew enough to feed selves, famile (5.8 million died in ukraine)
Lenin & Nadezhda arrested
Diaz resigned
communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure loyalty
Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin, this thing wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.
The Bolsheviks, favored a Socialist state. The appealed to nationalism and favored expelling foreigners from Russia.
Alexandra Kottontai
(1905) noted how little attention was paid to the fate of women and women's liberation, became the higheds ranking woman to serve in Lenin's government, and campaigned for women's rights
simple white garment, boycott of Br. textiles urged them to wear this
Civil Disobedience
a refusal to obey unjust laws
extreme nationalists
5 year plan
Diego Rivera
socialist Mexican painter of murals (1886-1957)
Long March
(1934) Jiang Jieshi vs. Mao Zedong, 100,000 followers fled Geomindang, 20,000 people survived, stood a symbol of comm. heroism to chinese who opposed Guamin
Maxim Gorky
Great russian writer, supported revolition and a friend of Lenin, opposed severity of war comm.
counterrevolutionaries who were loyal to the czar.
councils of workers and soldiers, at first worked democratically within the government
Command Economy
system in which government officals make all basic economic decisions
takeover of property or resources by the gov.
AFC African National Congress
followers of Emiliano Zapata
Sun Yixian
"father" of Chinese Revolution, new chinese republic took shape, set goal to catch up and surpass east and west powers. Qing Dynasty- collapse 1911, sun hoped to rebuild China on the three principles of the People, little progress happened
After WWI, the Paris Peace conference convenes, W.E.B. DeBois organized the 1st Pan-African Congress
Great Purge, Long March
nonviolence and reverence for life
"Truth" communist party newspaper, it linked enemies at home to foreign agents seeking to restore power to the landowners and capitalists, this revived extreme nationalism
working class
emperor of china (1926)
The officially state policy that there is no god.
Revolution of 1905
Nicholas II failed to fix the politcal, economic and social problems in Russia
cultural nationalism
pride in one's own culture
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Mexico recovers from revolution and civil war
Women's War
full fledged revolt. women armed with machetes and sticks mocked British troops and shouted at them
Francisco Pancho Villa
hard-riding rebel from the north- fought for personal power but won the loyalty of his followers
no god
Nadezhda Krupskaya
daughter of a poor noble family arrested with Lenin in 1895 and sent to Siveria, married to Lenin, after release they went to Swit. they worked to spread revolutionary ideas, returns with some followers, worked on revolution
puppet state set up by Japan after they conquered Manchuria
Prez of Mexico in 1917
Totalitarian State
gov. 1 party dictatorship regulates all aspects of a citizen's life
Zionist Movement
rebuild jewish state in palestine, migrate there soon and join small jewish communities
Lenin's secret police
Stalin proposes a 5-year plan for Soviet economic growth
Lenin adopts the NEP and comm. takes a win (still in chaos)
Great Purge
the killing of all the many people who were a part of the Old Bolsheviks
communist party newspaper
followers of Emiliano Zapata who led a peasant revolt
Marxism Predictions
industrial working class would rise spontaneously to overthrow capitalism
Civil Disobedience
the refusal the obey unjust laws
Gregory Rasputin
peasant and self-proclaimed "holy man", healer, came to have power over czarina. 1916 had immense amount of power over Alexandria. he appointed officials. assassinated on December 29, 1916
Stalin launches the Great Purge, chineses communism make an epic retreat aka the Long March
gov. leaders organize Institutional Revolutionary Party, dominated Mexican politics ever since, accommodates all groups, backs reforms
former czarist center of government
extreme nationalists
PRI organized
Mohandas Gandhi
former lawyer who addapted the weapon of nonviolent resistance, he called it staya-graha
British gives Egypt independence
communist party under Lenin
Socialist Realism
goal was to boost socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light
March 1917
Lenin returns from exile
Japan adds Manchuria to their empire (Manzhouguo)
Venustiano Carranza
conservative, became president of Mexico in 1917, also approved a new constitution
war communism
policy adopted by the communist
Good Neighbor Policy
Policy of Roosevelt's which led to the recall of US troops from Nicaragua and Haiti; supposed change in US interventionist policy in Latin America, which really represented no change in interests/involvement.
U.S attacks Vera Cruz (punish Mex. For imprisoning American soldiers)
New Economic Policy, (1921) allowed capitalist ventures, state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit stopped harassing peasants for grain, and peasants held on to small plots of land and sold surplus
Stalin's Propaganda
revived extreme nationalism, and radios blared into factories and billages, and in movies they heard about communist successes and the evils of capitalism
Japanese Parliament
Provisional Government
temporary government set up by the Duma politicians
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
adapted the name Lenin when he became a revolutionary,
policy of strict racial separation in South Africa
Theodor Herzl
responded to growing anthiseminism by founding zionist movement
Stalin's death
Command Economy
government officials made all basic economic decisions, developed by the S.U
Reza Khan overthrows the Shah and begins the Pahlavi dynasty
"Rape of Nanjing"
Nicholas & Alexandra
czar, After Revolution of 1905 he failed to solve Russia's basic political, economic and social problems, this sparked eruptions. March 1917 the first of two revolutions toppled the Romanov dynasty and started more radical changes.
Totalitarian State
gov. in which a one-party dictatorship controls every aspect of citizens lives
Venustiano Carranza is elected & Constitution, two revolutions lead to the creation of a comm. gove in Rusia
Rape of Nanjing
Dec. 13th 1937- Japan kills 100,000 people
Movement to express African pride
African National Congress
political party (1912) worked through legal means protesting laws that restricted the freedom of black Africans, it had no effect on sa's white government
Large farm owned & opperated by peasants as a group.
Mao Zedong
communist who escaped Jiang's attack, unlike others, believed communism should support large peasant masses, redistribute land to peasants, offered schooling + heath care
emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world
the PRI (institutional revolutionary party) is organized
jewish nationalist
Totalitarian State
Came from Soviet Union, a one-party dictatorship regulates every aspect of its citizens lives. and placed a censorship on books, art and music.
Mao Zedong
communist who escaped Jieshi's attack and led the Long March
Mikhail Sholokhov
"And Quiet Flows the Don" was allowed to be published despite restrictions. Won Nobel Prize for literature
Hindu belief in nonviolence & reverence for all
large farms owned and operated by peasants as a group
Reza Khan
An ambitious army officer -> overthrew the shah, sets up own PAHLAVI DYNASTY. rused to modernize (builds factories roads and railroads and strengthens the army, adopts western alphabet, clothes, schools)
the fact or condition of having more than one wife or husband at once.
Muslim Brotherhood
(1930's) fosters broad Islamic nationalism rejecting western cultures and denounced corruption in Egypt Gov.
educated Africans organize a political party known as the ANC
Soviet Union, much of the old Russian empire in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Lenin adoped NEP
Stalin, "women's war"
death of Rasputin
Jiang Jieshi
(nationalist) Succeeded Sun (1925) energetic army officer, received military training in Japan and wanted to smash warlords and reunite China. 1926- march into north china, crushed warlords and advanced, capital Beijing, mid campaign-> strikes communism (threat to his power) 1927- Guomindang slaughters comm. members, thousands killed in Shanghai
stock market crash in NYC triggers global depression of the 1930's
Great Purge
(1934), stalin cracked down on Old Bolsheviks, his net soon widened to target army heroes, industrial managers, writers and citizens, they were charged with a wide range of crimes, from plots to failure to not meeting production quotas
Economic Nationalism
emphasis on domestic control of the economy
Constitution of 1917
addressed the three major issues of land, religion and labor
May 4th, Pan-African
Treaty of Breast, civil war in Russia
Mustafa Kema, rules w/ iron hand
influential families
Osip Mandelstam
jewish poet, imprisoned, tortured and exiled for composing a verse that was critical of Stalin
arab nationalism, built on shared heritage of Arabs living in the Arbaian Peninsula to North Africa, mphasized common history and lang. sought to free Arabs from foreign dom.
WWII begins
Lenin's death sets off power struggle, Sun Yixian dies, and Jiang Jieshi takes over
"good neighbor policy", Ghandi, Salt movement, muslim league
communist party offiials assigned to the army to teach party principles and unsure party loyalty
Ataturk modernizes Turkey
Constitution of 1922
both democratic and socialist, set up an elected legislature (Supreme Soviet) gave all citizens over 18 the right to vote
wealthy peasants
Pearl Harbor
Cultural Nationalism
pride in one's own culture
Zionist Movement- Theodor Herzl
Marxist thinker, skillful speaker, architect of the Bolshevik Rev. murdered
Twenty-one demands
assembly or legislature of Japan
elite revolutionary party, small %,
Peace, Land, and Bread
Promise of Lenin & Bolsheviks
Muhammad Ali-Jinnah
Muslim league leader, middle-class, studied law, 1st represented muslim intrest within the congress, later supported separate Muslim states
May Fourth Movement
may 4th 1919, student protests in beijing, boycotting japanese goods, a cultural and intellectual ferment to strengthen china. (key role- joined marches, campaighned to end arranged marriages and foot binding)
The Bolsheviks, favored a Socialist state. The appealed to nationalism and favored expelling foreigners from Russia.
Anna Akhmatova
One of Russia's greatest poets, who could not publish her works because it violated state guidelines
Britain breaks off relations with the Soviet Union
Francisco Madero
early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections, two years later he was murdered, led to power struggles
communist international which aided rev. groups and urged colonial people to rise up
Socialist Realism
artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing soviet life in a positive light
W.E.B DuBois
african american scholar and activist, organized 1st Pan-African congress, met in Paris
March 1917
disaster on the battlefiled combined with food and fuel shortages on the home front brought the monarchy to collapse
growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners and urban wage earners
Impact of WWI
(1914) fired national pride and united russia, armies fought with enthusiasm, quick strain on resources, factpries didn't have enough supplies, transportation broke down, by (1915) low supplies of gun/ammo

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