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History mid-term vocab

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
habeas corpus
The principle that accused persons cannot be held in jail without the consent of a court
university
A school of advanced learning
immortal
Able to live forever
Jew
A descendant of the acient Hebrews, the founders of the religion of Judaism; also, any person whose religion is Judaism
pharmacist
A person who prepares medications for use in healing
commoner
A person who is not of noble rank
pilgrimage
A journey to a holy site
persecute
To cause a person to suffer because of his or her beliefs
charter
A written grant of rights and privileges by a ruler or government to a community, class of people, or organisation
truce
An agreed-upon halt in fighting
monasticism
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
warlord
A military leader operating outside the control of the goverment
barbarian
A person belonging to a tribe or group that is considered uncivilized
sedentary
Permanently settled in one place
Hadith
Accounts of Muhammads words or actions that are accepted as having authority for Muslims
Duke
The higest type or European noble, ranking just below a prince
maritime
Relating to the sea
commerce
The buying and selling of goods
Illuminated Manuscript
A handwritten book decorated with bright colors and precious metals
extended family
An immediate family(parents and their children) plus other close relatives, such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins
Iberian peninsula
A peninsula in southwestern Europe that today is divied between Spain and Portugal
province
A division of a country or an empire
observatory
A building designed for observing the stars and planets
moveable type
Individual characters made of wood or metal that can be arranged to create a job for printing and then used over again
excavate
In archeology, to carefully dig out an ancient site
harrow
A farm tool used to break up and even out plowed ground
clan
A group of related families
terra-cotta
A baked clay often used to make pottery and sculptures
amulet
A piece of jewelry or other object used as a charm to provide protection against bad luck, illness, injury, or evil
journeyman
A person who has learned a particular trade or craft but has not become an employer, or master
scaffolding
A framework used to support workers and materials during the construction or repair of a building
gunpowder
An explosive powder made of saltpeter and other materials
icon
A type of religious image typicall painted on a small wooden panel and considered sacred by Eastern Orthodox Christians
caravan
A group of people traveling together for mutual protection, often with pack animals such as camels
dynasty
A line of rulers descended from the same family
vault
A arched structure used to hold up a ceiling or a roof
cathedral
A large and important church
apprentice
A person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in return for training
proverb
A popular saying that is ment to express something wise or true
immune system
The body's natural defense against disease
aqueduct
A pipe or channel built to carry water between distant places
currency
The form of money used in a country
monotheism
Belief in a single god
theology
The study of God and religious truth
caliph
A title taken by Muslim rluers who claimed religious authority to rule
hierarchy
A system of organizing people into ranks, with those of higher rank having more power and privileges
fresco
A picture painted on the moist plaster of a wall or ceiling
folktale
A story that is usually passed down orally and becomes part of a community's tradition
tribe
A social group that shares a common ancestry, leadership, and traditions
clergy
The body of people, such as priests, who perform the sacred functions of a church
Anatolia
A large peninsula at the western edge of Asia; also called Asia Minor
evolution
The process by which different kinds of animals and other living things develop
rhetoric
The study or persuasive writing an speaking
longbow
A large bow used for firing feathered arrows
Inquisition
A judicial body established by the Catholic Church to combat heresy and other forms of religious error
bureaucracy
A highly organized body of workers with many levels of authority
conservatory
An advanced school of music
monk
A man who has taken a solemn vow to devote his life to prayer and service in a monastery
miracle play
A type of religious drama in the Middle Ages based on stories about saints
almsgiving
The giving of money, food, or other things of value to the needy
segmental arch bridge
A bridge supported by arches that are shallow segments(parts) of a circle
Friar
A member of a certain religious order devoted to teaching and works of charity
mural
A painting on a wall
catapult
A slingshot-like war machine used for shooting rocks, shells, and other objects
religious order
A brotherhood or sisterhood of monks, nuns, or friars
liturgy
A sacred rite of public worship
call and response
A song style in which a singer or musician leads with a call and a group responds
mass-produce
To make similar items in quantity by using standardized designs and dividing labor among workers
expulsion
Removal by force
rainforest
An area of lush vegetation and year-round rainfall
relic
An object considered holy because it belonged to, or was touched by , a saint or other holy person
irrigate
To bring water to a dry place in order to grow crops
garrison
A place where a group of soldiers is stationed for defensive purposes
Bubonic plague
A deadly contagious disease caused by bacteria and spread by fleas
guild
An organization of people in the same craft or trade
circumference
The distance around a circle or sphere
civil service examinations
A test given to qualify candidates for positions in the goverment
astronomy
The science of the stars, planets, and other objects in the universe
Divine Right of Kings
The belief that God gives monarchs the right to rule
nun
A woman who has taken a sacred vow to devote her life to prayer and sercive to the church
fief
Land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
monarch
A ruler, such as a king or queen
chivalry
The medieval knights code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for women
applique
A technique in which shaped pieces of fabric are attached to a background fabric to form a design or picture
armor
A covering, usually made of metal or leather, worn to protect the body during fighting
manor
A large estate, including farmland and villages, held by a lord
Fatimid dynasty
A muslim ruling family in Egypt and North Africa that was descended from Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter
excommunicate
To formally deprive a person of membership in a church
schism
A formal division in a church or religious body
crossbow
A medieval weapon made up of a bow that was fixed across a wooden stock(which had a groove to direct the arrow's flight) and operated by a trigger
minstrel
A singer or musician who sang or recited poems to music played on a harp or other instrument
terrace
A flat strip of ground on a hillside used for growing crops
natural law
The concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking
succession
Inheritance of the right to rule
tributary
A ruler or country that pays tribute to a conqueror
algebra
A branch of mathematics that solves problems involving unknown numbers
plateau
A raised area of flat land
monastery
A community of monks
siege
An attempt to surround a place and cut off all access to it in order to force a surrender
woodland forest
An area of abundant trees and shrubs
mosaic
A picture made up of small pieces of tile, glass, or colored stone
nomad
A person who moves from place to place, often in search of water and vegetation
inoculate
to protect against disease by transmitting a disease-causing agent to a person, stimulating the body's defensive reactions
headdress
A decorative covering worn on the head, often as a sign of rank
domain
The land controlled by a ruler or lord
convent
A community of nuns; also called a nunnery
synagogue
A Jewish house of worship
mysticism
A form of religious belief and practice involving sudden insight and intense experiences of God
polytheist
A person who believes in more than one god
public works
Construction projects built by the government for public use, shuch as buildings, roads, and bridges
sacrament
A solemn rite of Christian churches
genealogy
An account of the line of ancestry within a family
Christianity
The religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ
anti-semitism
Prejudice toward Jews
segregation
The forced separation of one group from the rest of a community
calligraphy
The art of beautiful handwriting
mystery play
A type of religious play in the Middle Ages based on stories from the Bible
convert
A person who adopts new beliefs, especially those of a religious faith
patrilineal
Based on a mans family line
common law
A body of rulings made by judges that become part of a nation's legal system
canal lock
A gated chamber in a canal used to raise or lower the water level
deposit
A layer or mass of a material found in rock or in the ground
zoology
The scientific study of animals
textile
A woven cloth
porter
A person who is hired to carry loads
ransom
Money paid in exchange for the release of prisoners
chain pump
A pump with containers attached to a loop of chain to lift water and carry it where it is wanted
scribe
A person trained to write or copy documents by hand
philosophy
The study of wisdom, knowledge, and the nature of reality
Imam
A leader of prayer om a mosque
leprosy
A skin and nerve disease that causes open sores on the body and can lead to seriouc complications and death
tribute
A payment made by one ruler or country to another for protection or as a sign of submission
barge
A long boat with a flat bottom
noble
A person of high rank by birth or title
heretic
A person who holds beliefs that a contrary to the teachings of a church or other group
astrolabe
An instrument used to observe and measure the position of the sun and other heavenly bodies
porcelain
A hard, white pottery; also called china
vaccine
A substance used to immunize people against a disease
dome
A roof shaped like a half-circle or hemisphere
boycott
A refusal to do business with an organization or group
moat
A deep, wide ditch, often filled with water

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