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Chapter 8

The origins of European Typography and Design for Printing

Terms

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Pierre Didot
son of Francoise-Ambroise who took charge of his father's printing office.
William Playfair
Scottish author and scientist, who used Cartesian coordinates and other aspects of analytic geometry to convert statistical data into symbolic graphics. Introduced the line (or fever) graph and bar chart.
Romain du Roi
a new typeface, which had increased contrast between thick and thin strokes, sharp horizontal serifs, and an even balance to each letterform.
Francois Didot
established a printing and bookselling firm in Paris in 1713, which marked the beginning of a family dynasty of printers, publishers, papermakers, and type founders.
William Blake
the visionary English poet and artist who opened a printing shop at age 27 and integrated letterforms into illustrations.
Giambattista Bodoni
the son of an indignant printer who was born in Saluzzo in northern Italy and led the way in evolving new typefaces and page layout.
John Pine
an Englishman, who was one of the best engravers of his time. In addition, to book design and production, he was chief engraver of seals for the King of England, and created portfolios of large etching.
Firmin Didot
son of Francoise-Ambroise who succeeded his father as head of the Didot type foundry. His notable achievements include the invention of stereotyping.
Neoclassicism
critics hailed Bidoni's volumes including Vergil's Opera as the typographic expression of Neoclassicism and a return to "antique virtue."
George Bickham the Elder
renowned English writing master and engraver who was the most celebrated penman of his time.
William Bulmer
punch cutter, former apprentice to Baskerville and brother of Baskerville's foreman Robert Martin, who was called to London to design and cut types.
Editions du Louvre
lavish margins surround Firm Didot's modern typography, which is even more mechanical and precise than Bidoni's. These artists created figures as ideally modeled as Greek statues.
Type family
the different styles of fonts with varied weights and widths that show that are visually compatible and can be mixed.
Engraving
a drawing made with a graver instead of a pencil as the drawing tool, a smooth copperplate instead of a sheet of paper as the substitute.
Maigre (thin)
type style similar to the condensed fonts of our time.
Wood engraving
woodcuts were made by cutting with the grain on softer wood.
Packing
the padding behind the sheet of paper being printed.
Paper with laid finish
a textual pattern of horizontal lines created in manufacture by wires that form the screen in the papermaker's mold.
Calendaring paper
a smooth, refined surface produced by hot-pressing the paper after it was printed.
Modern
defines a new category of Roman type; was first used by Fournier le Jeune in his Manuel typographique to describe the design trends that culminated in Bodoni's mature work.
Point
type measurement
Rene Descartes
French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, who used algebra to solve geometry problems, formulate equations to represent lines and curves, and a point in space through coordinates.
Folio
the first book to feature the new types in 1702.
Thomas Berwick
the father of wood engraving. His "white line" technique employed a finer graver to achieve tonal effect by cutting across the grain of Blocks of Turkish boxwood.
Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune
the youngest son of a prominent family of printers and type founders. At age 24, he established an independent type design and foundry operation after studying art and apprenticing at the Le Be foundry.
Pied de roi
divided into twelve inches as Didot's standard measurement system. Then, each inch was divided into 72 points.
John Baskerville
an innovator who broke the prevailing rules of design and printing in 56 editions produced by his press in Birmingham, England. Created Baskerville font, which represent the zenith of the transitional styles between old style and modern.
Louis-Rene Luce
a type designer and punch cutter at the Imprimerie Royale. Published his essay on a new typography.
Paper with wove finish
manufactured for Baskerville formed by a mold having a much finer screen made of wires woven in and out like cloth.
Old style
roman type design
Line (or fever) graph
charted two lines whose x-axis represented the year and y-axis represented millions of pounds; showed year-by-year imports and exports between England and its colonies.
Analytic geometry
a branch of geometry developed and first used in 1637 by the French philosopher, mathematician, and scientists Rene Decartes.
Francoise-Ambroise Didot
son of Francois Didot introduced a highly finished, smooth paper of wove design modeled after the paper commissioned by Baskerville in England. Created fonts in 1775 that possessed a lighter, more geometric quality.
Stereotyping
involves casting a duplicate of a relief painting surface by pressing a molding material (damp paper pulp, plaster, or clay) against it to make a matrix.
Pouce
a now-obsolete French unit of measure slightly longer than an inch
Gras (fat)
type style similar to the expanded fonts of our time.
William Caslon
a native genius who opened his own shop and added silver chasing and cutting of gilding tools and letter stamps. Created Calson font.
Axes
the perpendicular intersecting lines. A horizontal line called the x-axis and a vertical line called the y-axis.
Cartesian coordinates
the distance from the horizontal axis, and other number that defines its distance from vertical axis. (e.g. 2,3 denotes a point two units along the horizontal line and three units along the vertical line.)
Romanticism
against the neoclassical emphasis on reason and the intellect combined with Blake's focus upon the imagination, introspection, and emotions.

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