## Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
The indicated root of a quantity.
terminating decimal
A decimal number that does not repeat.
repeating decimal
A decimal in which a digit or a set of digits repeat infinitely.
pi
The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. Approximately equal to 3.14.
square root
A number that when multiplied by itself produces a given number.

Example:
3 is the square root of 9
perfect square
A number that is the square of an integer.
cube root
The number that must be multiplied by itself and then by itself again to produce a given number.
rounding
Approximating the value of a number to a given decimal place.
place value
The value given to a place a digit may occupy in a numeral.
benchmark
A point of reference from which measurements can be made.
base
The side or face on which a three-dimensional shape stands;
The number of characters a number system contains.
height
The distance from the base to the top of a figure.
A line segment from the center of a circle to any point on its circumference.
diameter
A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and divides it in half.
circumference
The distance around a circle, calculated by multiplying the diameter by the value pi.
polygon
A simple, closed plane figure, having three or more line segments as sides.
prism
A solid figure that has two parallel, congruent polygonal facs (called bases).
cube
A solid figure with six square faces.
cylinder
A solid shape with parallel circular bases.
similar figures
Have the same shape but are not necessarily the same size.
ratio
A comparison of two numbers.
proportion
A statement that two ratios are equal.
scale drawing
A proportionally correct drawing of an object or area at actual, enlarged, or reduced size.
Pythagorean Theorem
A mathematical idea stating that the sum of the squared lengths of the two shorter sides of a right triangle is equal to the squared length of the hypotenuse.
right triangle
A triangle with one right angle.
hypotenuse
The side of a right triangle, opposite the right angle.
legs
The two sides of a right triangle that form the right angle.
Pythagorean triple
A set of three integers that satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem.
area
The size of a surface, usually expressed in square units.
volume
The space occupied by a solid, measured in cubic units.
perimeter
The distance around the outside of a closed figure.
square
To multiply a number by itself; shown by the exponent 2.
irrational numbers
The set of all numbers that cannot be expressed as finite or repeating decimals.
transformation
A mathematical process that changes the shape or position of a geometric figure.
scale
The ratio between the actual size of an object and proportional representation.
scale factor
The factor by which all the components of an object are multiplied in order to create a proportional enlargement.
scatter plot
A two-dimensional graph in which the points corresponding to two related factors (for example, smoking and life expectancy) are graphed and observed for correlation.
trend
A consistent change over time in the statistical data representing a particular population.
y-intercept
The point at which a line or curve cuts across the y-axis.
x-intercept
The point at which a line or curve cuts across the x-axis.
ordered pair
Two numbers that tell the x-coordinate and y-coordinate of a point.
slope
A way of describing the steepness of a line, ramp, hill, and so on;
The ratio of the rise to the run.
measures of central tendancy
Numbers or pieces of data that can represent the whole set of data.
mean
The sum of the numbers in a set of data divided by the number of pieces of data in the data set.
median
The middle number in a set of data when the data are arranged in numerical order. If the data has an even number, the median is the mean of the two middle numbers.
mode
The number(s) or item(s) that appear most often in a set of data.
range
In statistics, the difference between the largest and smallest values in a sample.
sample
A finite subset of a population, used for statistical analysis.
random sample
A population sample chosen so that each member has the same probabilty of being selected.
function
Assigns exactly one output value to each input value.
solution
The answer to a mathematical problem. In algebra, a solution usually consists of a value or set of values for a variable.
variable
A letter or other symbol that represents a number or set of numbers in an expression or an equation.
equation
A mathematical sentence stating that two expressions are equal.
intercept
The cutting of a line, curve, or surface by another line, curve, or surface;
The point at which a line or curve cuts across a given axis.
commutative property
The mathematical rule that states that the order in which numbers are added or multiplied has no effect on the sum or product.
associative property
A rule that states that the sum or product of a set of numbers is the same, no matter how the numbers are grouped.
A number that when added to given number results in a sum of zero.
multiplicative inverse
The number for any given number that will yield 1 when the two are multiplied, same as reciprocal.
non-linear function
A function that does not have a constant rate of change. The graph of a nonlinear function is not a straight line.
linear function
A function in which the graph of the solutions forms a line.
corresponding parts
Parts of congruent or similar figures that match.
complementary angles
Two angles are complementary if the sum of their measures is 90°.
supplementary angles
Two angles are supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180°.
coordinate plane
A plane in which a horizontal number line and vertical number line intersect at their zero points.
dependent variable
The variable for the output of a function.
independent variable
The variable for the input of a function.
outlier
Data that is more than 1.5 times the interquartile range from the upper or lower quartiles.
biased sample
A sample drawn in such a way that one or more parts of the population are favored over others.
function table
A table organizing the input, rule, and output of a function.
coefficient
The numerical factor of a term that contains a variable.
slope-intercept form
An equation written in the form y=mx+b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept.
parallel lines
Lines in the same plane that never intersect or cross.
perpendicular lines
Two lines that intersect to form right angles.
line of best fit
A line that is very close to most of the data points.
domain
The set of input values in a function.
non-terminating
decimal
A decimal number that does not end.
ascending order
Listing numbers from least to greatest.

Example: 1,2,3,4,5...
descending order
Listing numbers from greatest to least.

Example: 10,9,8,7,6,...
extraneous information
Extra information in a word problem that is not necessary to solve the problem.
positive correlation
Graph shows a positive slope.
negative correlation
Graph shows a negative slope.
enlargement
To make a geometric figure larger
reduction
To make a geometric figure smaller
shrink
To make a geometric figure smaller
image
A figure after dilation.
pre-image
A figure before dilation.
similarity
Having the same qualities.
trend/correlation
Relationship between two variables.
no correlation
Graph showing no relationship.
function notation
The way a function is recognized.

Example: f(x)
standard form
ax+by=c
intersecting lines
Lines that cross at a point.