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geog exam 3


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microthermal climates (D)
alaska and canada, upper russia
highest canopy tops (10-60m
mean temperature less than 50 deg in all months
climate specifics
smaller second letters: f,m,s,S,T,w,W. third letters: a,b,c,d,h,k
what is soil
5% organic matter, 50% pore spacs for water and air. 45% mineral matter (ions, parent materials)
hot and dry desert
more xerophytes (survive in dry eras) Succlents and cacti...larg patches of bare ground. Sarahara, kalahari, etc.
Black Flood
the black sea and meditteranean sea: before the black sea was getting water fro the icee, not sea. the sea level lowered, creating the meditterenaen water to low into the sea the reverse way.
second letter Tundra; at least 1 month between 0-10 deg. celsius
where the tropical climates
south america, middle africa, indonesian islands and india. along the equator
second letter monsoon, second letter, only 1-3 months of rainfall, less than 6 cm
soil processes
1. soil additions things add up to it. 2. soil transactions 3.a. upper soil depletions 4. soil transformations 3.b. lower soil depletions
state of the atmospheree at a specific pace and time on the earths surface
second letter winter dry; winter dry season 3-6 less than six cm.
climate change and human history books
coming to the americas, the black sea lood, ancient maya, vikings, eruption of tambora, little ice age, dust bowl, military history.
central Kansas
, A, B, Cca
o horizon
leaf and plant litter
mean annual temp is greater than 64.4 deg. f (warm)
rain lakes being filled by rain water on adjacent slopes.
regoligth and bedrock
weathering into soil. most acection near surface until it sinks or mixes downwards.
Sonoran Desert
south arizona, aguro cacti, grows without arms for about fifty years until arms develop. part wooden, have ribs. tissues absorbs water, ribs spread apart. interesting rooting system literal. Fills with water, latitudinally for supports. 23. gets moisture from rain as it soaks in
tundra mat
like a carpet, rolls of permafrost, creates own microsoil.
when does temperature change the most
changes when heat descends. Precipitation lowers as heat rises. another dustbowl can be possible.
soil colors
very visually good colors
soil which is a mix of clay, silt, and sand.
a huge period of draught.
red low range colors--tropical, rainforest soil. heavily oxidized and all iron and aluminimum.
The Last Ice Age
20-18ka was the coldest part of the last glacial period. the LGM.
decomposed organic matter
soil horizon
the colors of the soil as they decrease.
acidic soils with a subsurface accumulation of sosquidoxeses humis. Mostly from idaho. O, E, B, L
global climate change
major environmental issue of the next century; highly politicized, climate scientists agree that global change is occuring, the vast majority also agrees that it is due to antrhopogenic influences.
napoleans great army
efforts to cros the rever in 1812, the coldest period euroep experienced in 200 years. WWII was the next coldest period in europe
Konza prarie
never plowed, soils on bills too thin.
second letter Steppe (semi-arid) mean annual precip in low latitudes 38-76 cm. 25-64 in midlatitudes.
soil development and time
takes 2500years to erode.
ground layer
0-5 meters, floor level plants
Munder Miniminum
an area of decreased solar output. stradivarious used narrower and denser tree wood to make violions
calcium carbonate--looks like white chalk in soils
tropical highland oak forests
full of oxisols: quericus hondurenesis (oak hondurasas)
Mollisols on rural road showed
A-ca, and other bases high. Most fertile soil order.
warmest month has mean temp less than 71.6 but fewer than 4 months have greater than 50 deg. f
highland climates (H)
Associated with large mtn ranges (andes, rockies, alps). Cooler\colder than surrounding lowlands, even in tropical or equatorial regions, oen wetter than surroundings due to orographoic precip.
dark varnish to rock top
bacterial growth dominant
very acidy, mid coniferous forest. trees, tallgrass, short grass, sagebrush.
midconiderous forest
conifers are more northwards toward canada
soils of the past: the river alluvium near the lawrence airport
significant climate changes due to altitude variations.
arid\semi-arid climates (B)
above and below tropics
mean annual precip is less than 30 inches
mixing of biological things "critters (prarie dogs, ants, etc)
a horizon
enriched wiht humus
where the arid and semi arid climates
just outside the equtor: midwest US, chile area, upper africa and lower africa, india andmid asia, australia
5-15meters under the canopy
mimidlatitude decidious forests: alfisols
soils with a subsurface zone of slicale clay acumulation and high base staus (very fertile)
arctic turndra, light purple: caribou all stay low, small plants are all frozen. if not rock, it's probably permafrost.
Ice Free Corridor
meanders terraces, extc. good indicitation that people walked across the corridor from place to place.
ways to make water expand
thermal expansion and adding more water.
third letter; alphabetical; warmest month has mean temp of 71.6 but monts with mean temp greater than 50 deg f
desert varnish
1. biographic deposit produced by mixotrophic bacteria on rocks. 2. can be 1000's of years old. 3.made of bacterial activity realitive to clay accumulation determines color
dust storm
western kansas during a jackrabbit hunt.
the NAO time series
positive index recently (stronger winds and more storms in the north atlantic)
third letter : alphabetical warmest month ahs greater than 71.6 deg. f
15-40 meters
the beginnning of the Ice age in the american southwest:
1247: mesa verde abandoned because of the drought. this isk nown because of the tree rings. it wasn't colder, just drier.
a, b,e, and o
mean temp each month is greater than 64 deg.
Mojace desert
microbacteria filaments bind soil particles
indicators of global warming
glacial retreat, arctic sea-ice extent, river thaw dates, sea-level rise.
wallace soil
from the top down: organic (dark), then ashey white, the ndarker brown, yellow, then tan.
average values of weather elements, such as temp and precipitation over an extended period of time.
aridisol environment
desert pavement; not many plants, soil pit ug--looks like gravel.
John Muir
documents a glacier in alaska during the Little Ice Age.
the weathered paretn material.
death valley
once a LGM pluvial lake.
global rise in sea level
the rise equals higher ice mass
climate change recorded through history:
has gone down over 70 milion years
tropical rainforest parts
emergents, canopy, understory, groundlayer
second letter desert; mean annual precipitation less than 15 inches
regolith 2
soil texture
distribution of the particals by size (mineral grains in the soil (grains, sand, silt, clay)
soil acidity
from the E horizon to the b. in kanssas there is no E because the soil, the Cgets really thick because of biomss.
mesothermal climates (C)
eruope, eastern states, lower south america, brazil
four categories of biomes
forest, grassland, desert, tundra, alpine and arctic ice
active seas of sand: after the lgm the kalahari got bigger. the size of them cbanged from the last ice age.
climate change
climatice variability the psuedo-cycles. 1. El Nino (ENSO), 2. Sahelian Droughts and Lake Chad. 3. North Atlantic Oscillations (NAO)
the Sahel
ranfall gradient from 1200 to 200 mm in about 500 miles. (over the hump in africa)
big bluestream
tall grass eight inches or higher "turkey foot"
a middle-high latitude atmospheric oscillation. Negavite index (weak winds), Positive index (strong winds)
polar climates (E)
antartica, north pole
some examples of environmental change during the last ice age
sea level, Erg activity, pluvial lakes
the joining of two continents by creating a passage (i.e the bering land bridge)
the LGM
last Glacial Maximum; when the ice sheets were the biggest. known as the Ice Age
second letter means "moist", second letter, less than or equal to six centimeters of mean rainall each month
b horizon
zone of illuviation
Eastern great planes
Thick A, B, Cca, vs. central kansas
kansas wildfire
burn and release ash, increase albedo. gives ggrass, move lushisnouss
mean annual temp lower tahn 64.4 f. (cold)
Grapes of Wrath
about the dust bowl: higher temperatures, less water, sever yearls of draught.
Great American Desert
in the mid 1800's. a relatively moist period desp;ite the afore preception.
mean temp greater than 50 in 4-8 months
soil decrease with the rainforest because
the rain increases
major climate groups
A,B,C,D,E,H all capitals:
slash and burn
human impact: was previously a rainforst.
show range of heat at elevations over the months, the solztice and equinoxs' and\or the precipitation
wet and squishy
soils that have been plowed
light varnish to rock bottom
clay accumulation dominant
soil ordder boundaries; transitional zone in vegitation, and begitation changes
the Gramas
short grasses; further west, short, bunched. less biomass
third letter; same as c, but mean monthly temp is less than neg. 36.4 degrees
r horizon
c horizon
unaltered parent material
mean monthly warmes temp is 50 deg. and mean coldest temp between 64 and 27 deg.
buttress roots
2 purposes: 1. the exchange part of the vain system, and 2. support
grassland soils with a high fertility; dependent on bioturbation (mixed organic matter)
methods of investigations
soil pits, soil coring

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