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Emerging Viruses


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What are the two definitions of "emerging viruses"?
1. Newly recognized or new infections of humans
2. Viruses whose prevalance has been increasing over the past few years.
What are two reasons why viruses are emerging?
1. Anthropological changes
2. Anthropogenic changes
What type of genome does Hantavirus have?
Enveloped RNA virus
What is the primary host of hantavirus?
What type of transmission is shown in Hantavirus?
Horizontal transmission
How do most people aquire Hantavirus?
Inhaling dried up rat feces when cleaning up after them
What age group does Hantavirus like to infect?
Young people
What is fatality rate of Hantavirus?
What region of the globe is Hantavirus mainly seen in?
North America - US mainly
What is another name for Hantavirus when it was originally discovered?
Sin Nombre Virus (SNV)
What type of clinical manifestations are seen with Hantavirus?
Respiratory infections
What weather phenomenon was involved with the epidemic of what virus?
1. El nino
2. Hantavirus
What is characteristic of Filovirus?
Hemorrhagic fevers
What is the fatality rate in filoviruses?
90% to 100%
What are the two major Filovirus pathogens?
1. Ebola virus
2. Marburg virus
What is the host for Marburg virus?
Why do you see Ebola virus epidemics burn out relatively fast?
The virus is so virulent that it burns the host population out before extensive spreading.
How long does the prepatent peroid for Ebola last?
5-7 days
What are the initial symptoms of Ebola
Flu-like symptoms
What is a bad initial sign of Ebola virus infection?
Maculopapula rashes on trunk and shoulders
What is the main problem in people infected with Ebola?
How long until death occurs with Ebola virus?
14 days after inception of illness
What do the internal organs look like in a fatal case of Ebola?
Complete liquifaction of the internal organs
What is the presumed animal host for Ebola?
Wild dogs
What is the animal host of Marburg virus?
How is Ebola contracted?
Close contact with body fluids on infected individuals.
Where did the SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 originate?
Guangdong China
What is the animal host for SARS
Civet cat
What type of virus is SARS?
What is the fatality rate of SARS in humans?
SARS tends to be tougher on what age group?
How long did it take SARS to jump half-way around the world?
3 weeks
What is a super-spreader?
An infected individual that spreads the virus more readily than others.
What is the best way to control SARS?
Isolation and quarantine
What disease was held in check using thermal scanners in the airport?
What type of virus is Chikingunya virus?
Alphavirus (arbovirus)
How is Chikingunya spread?
Ae. aegypti
What is the major reservior for Chikingunya virus?
What is the pathogenesis of Chikingunya virus?
Non-lethal virus that causes sever muscle pain.
What strain are we really worried about when it comes to a pandemic flu?
What has been the mortality rate of H5N1 so far?
How is H5N1 mainly spread?
Domestic ducks
What is the incubation period for H5N1?
1 week
What is the treatment for H5N1?
What would be control measures if an outbreak of H5N1 started?
1. Quarantine
2. Ring eradication

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