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Chapter 8 US history


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Infant mortality rate (8.3)
How the Other Half Lives (8.3)
Book by Riis; provided an idea of tenement living
suburbs (8.3)
residential communities surrounding cities
tenements (8.3)
low-cost apartment buildings designed to house as many families as the owner could pack in
Sullivan (8.3)
completed 10-story Wainwright building
Otis (8.3)
invented safety device for passenger elevator
dumbbell tenement (8.3)
building with windows in all rooms to fulfill New York Law
political machine (8.3)
unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power; usually headed by a single "boss;" early mafias and gangs
Cox (8.3)
won election for city council; honest political machine boss; worked to better the city
Tweed (8.3)
political machine boss of Tammany Hall; located in New York
Great Chicago Fire (8.3)
fire leapt from roof to roof; one of the worst of the time; don't know who started it (rumored, cow); burned basically whole city
the use of one's job to gain unethical profit
gilded age (8.1)
"layered in gold;" looked good on outside (prosperity), struggling on inside (massive poverty)
Gould (8.1)
Railroad executive for Erie Railroad; took money from his workers
laissez-faire (8.1)
"To do nothing;" no government rules to regulate business
subsidy (8.1)
Government payment to help certain industries; Aided mostly small businesses
spoils system (8.1)
"To the victor goes the spoils;" If you win, you get the prize; If you run for election, you get the job's benefits; Pick who you want to run the country (appoint non-elected positions); taken advantage of during this time, gave jobs to undeserving people
blue laws (8.1)
Prohibits private activities considered immoral; Ex: prohibition -> ban on alcohol (makes immoral behavior)
civil service (8.1)
governments non-elected workers
Pendleton Civil Service Act (8.1)
Classified government jobs; Tested if certain jobs' applicants were fit for their job (most important jobs)
Coxey (8.1)
Led groups of people to protest poverty and depression; nicknamed "Coxey's Army;" marched at the Capitol
McKinley (8.1)
President; Started to get the US out of its depression; 3rd President to get assassinated; believed govt should be involved in business; assassinated by an immigrant & anarchist
Stalwarts (8.1)
In favor of the spoils system
Half-breeds (8.1)
Favored reform of the spoils system
Garfield & Arthur (8.1)
President; known half-breed; assassinated; replaced by VP who was a stalwart
Guiteau (8.1)
disappointed he was not given a government job; decided to kill the president; yelled something about being a stalwart
Cleveland (8.1)
Served one term, ran for re-election & lost, ran for election & won.
ghettos (8.2)
an area dominated by one race; overcrowded, crime, pollution; now Chinatown & Little Italy
Chinese Exclusion Act (8.2)
stopped Chinese from entering country; Banned until 1949
Gentleman's Agreement (8.2)
Japanese not allowed in same schools as other people; Japan stopped issuing passports in trade for Japanese being educated in the same schools; not official
Webb Alien Land Law (8.2)
law in California that banned non-citizens (directed at Asians) from owning farmland
Newlands National Reclamation Act (8.2)
promoted irrigation of the land in the southwest. It wasn't our land, we had given it to the Indians.
restrictive covenants (8.2)
an agreement between landowners to rent land to people of the same race
Pogroms (8.2)
massacre of Jewish people in Russia
quarantine (8.2)
not going near people whn ill; immigrants quarantined at Ellis Island
Ellis Island (8.2)
place that processed immigrants; possibly were sent back at that point.
steerage (8.2)
the lower part (belly) of a ship; horrible place to ride; immigrants rode on it
Birds of Passage (8.2)
people who came to America with a temporary purpose; make money in States and send it or move back
LaGuardia (8.2)
modern airport; a man who worked in Ellis Island as an interpreter; grew to be mayor of New York
Roosevelt (8.2)
made Gentleman's Agreement with Japan
Immigration Restriction Act (8.2)
not specific to culture; set quotas to limit amounts from each country; open door with Mexico
Willard (8.4)
reformer, women's Christian temperance movement; president of Chicago chapter
New York Charity Organization Society (8.4)
tried to make charity a business; make organizations (like the Red Cross)
Social Gospel Movement (8.4)
people wanting to apply the teachings of jesus to society; church sponsored reform movement
settlement house (8.4)
community center; cultural events, classes & exhibits for free, used for people to sleep and eat too; similar to YMCA & Boys and Girls Club
Hull House (8.4)
mansion in Chicago; open to the poor (settlement house); spawned many settlement houses, but this was the most famous.
sociology (8.4)
study of how people interact with one another in society
nativism (8.4)
favoring native-born Americans over immigrants; not Native Americans, the people who came over first
Immigration Restricted League (8.4)
hoped to exclude immigrants by giving them literacy tests
Temperance Movement (8.4)
organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption; organized by average citizens
prohibition (8.4)
ban on manufacturing and selling of alcoholic beverages
American Protective Association (8.4)
trying to focus on American culture; did not like ghettos; wanted to dissuade people from continuing heritage; wanted English to be the only language taught in schools
vice (8.4)
bad habits that are detrimental to society; corruption, alcohol

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