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CD efforts justification
on campus perhaps fraternity hazing someone who undergoes painful or humiliating ritual will have a need to believe that it was all worthwhile


you have to qualify for this study

those who were in the sever initiation had to read aloud a sexual novel embarrassing

turned out the study was about in insex sex lame, but those in the sever initiation condition said it was da bomb.

at the end of the study those particapnts who were in the sever intiation condition rated teh study more favourable than the other two conditions.

when is dissonance exacerbate
the behavior was not sufficiently justified
the behavior had a negative consequence
the negative consequence was foreseeable.
the behavoir was freely chosen.

CD free choice
duke uni offered .5 or 2.5 to write an essay banning commusts

those payed .5 changed their attitudes more

CD negative consequences
specificaly particpants were induced to tell somone who they though was about to take part in a boring experiment that it was interesting.

provided a small or large incentive to do so

is dissonance universal
for easterners and perhaps interdependent people in general it may be prompted by a concern about the ability to make a choice that would be proved by others
self perception theory
people come to know their own attitudes by looking at their outward Beauvoir

happens when our prior attitudes are weak ambiguous and uninterpretable.

interpersonal simualtion
evidence for self directed inference

what is this guys attitude given a the sitaution

always accurate at predicting.

particpants responces tend to mirror the actual responces given in the study

cd testing for arousal (see sugar pills)
- Dissonance theory posits that the inconsistency between behavior and prior attitudes or values produces an unpleasant physiological state that motivates people to reduce the inconsistency. No arousal no attitude change. Self perception theory in contrast contends that there is no arousal involved people coolly and rationally infer what their attitudes must be in light of their behavior and context in which it occurs.
- The investigators predicted that this effect would dissipate when the participant were told incorrectly that the drug would make them tense
- The greatest difference between participants in the free choice and no choice conditions that is the biggest dissonance effect was observed among participants who had been told that the drug would make them feel relaxed

dissonance vers self perception
dissonance reduction proccess are invoked when people act in ways that are inconsistent wiht pre exiting attitutes that are clear cut and provide some importance were as self perception kicks in when it is not important and ambigous.
system justification theory
people are motivated psychologicaly to see exiting poltical and socail stat quo as desirable fair and legitmate.
terror management theory
we strive for a symbolic immorality when death is put in our face we strive to maintain a world view

morality salience

john kerry vs george bush, every time the threat level went up security goes up

emotiokns are breif they last for seconds ore minutes.
emtions are specific
finaly emtiosn typical help us with our social goals

anger motivates us to redress injustice

principle of serviceable habits
maintains that expression of human emotions that we derive from habitual pattern so behavior provided useful in the primate and mammalian ancestors.
cultural specifity of emtion
assumes that emotions are biologically based adaptations that increase the likelihood that our genes will be passed to next generations..


particapnts could match the appropraite emtion to the appropriate shit,

PAPA new Guinea for acheived rates of 90% accuracy

Free responce critique
in ekmans study all the terms were provided in english if they had been provided in native languge they might capture a concept that is forein to us.
unversality study olympics
after losing both groups of altheletes dropped thier heads and slumped thier shoulders displaying shame the atheletes hailed from over 20 different countires.
cultural specifity
cultures develop highly stylized cultrualy specific ways of expressing paritcular emtions


embarisment india vs US college


cultures vary the extent that they hypercatorize emotions.
tahiti 46 terms for anger

interdpendant cultures dropped thier shoulders more while loosing at the olympics the independant cultures.

display rules
culturally specific rules the govern how we express emotions

Japanese de intensy outward expression of excitement

plus matsomoto study.

inter group emotion theory
argue that group members experince emtions vis a vis other groups accordint to their identification with thier own groups and feelings of strengths an waekness realtive to the outgroup

contempt towards out groups when we feel more powerful
fear to out groups when they feel weaker.

feelings as informational perspective
basic assumption that emotions provide us with rapid relatable information about events and conditions within our social enviroment gut feelings shape oru msot important judgments


study day vs rainy day

most likely to rely on our emotions when we make complex judgments.

processing style perspective
a theory that different emtions lead people to reason in different ways for example that postive mood facilitate pre existing heuristics and stereotypes when negative moods facilatate more carefullnes to situational detils.
broaden and build hypothesis
the hypothesis that positive emotions broaden though and action repitours helping us gain social resources.
two factor theory
contains two factors
undifferentiated arousal

- Study
- Epinepehrine informed
- Epinerphrine miniformed
- Anger condition
-Euphoria condition
-Participants should be especially happy when in the euphoria condition and they were not informed.
- Less happy when informed of epinephrine.

peak moment of pleasure associated with disproportionate amount of pleasure

duration neglect: relative unimportance of length of emotional experience

Affective forecasting
Predicting our future emotions
- People overestimated how much a heart break would affect them.
- Study
- Professors were not significantly less happy who did not get tenure were not significantly less happy than those who did.
- Immune neglect: the tendency to underestimate our capacity to be resilient in responding to a difficult life events which leads su to overestimate the extent to which lifes difficulties will reduce our personal well being.

physical proximity increases connections


residents near stairwells formed twice as many freindships as neibours living in middle appartments.

- Study
- Examined patterns of friendships in manhattan housing project in which half the residents were black, one third were white and the rest were portorequan
- Proximity was particularly pronounced in friendships that developed across age and racial groups.
- It appears that people are willing to look beyond immediate environment to find friends their own age and race their friendship with people of a different age or race on the other hand tended to be those that fell in their laps.

explanation of proximity effects
availability and proximity, i encourages passive contacts that bring friendships

the effect of anticipating interactions

Mere exposure effect

- finding that repeated stimulus exposure results in greater liking.

bogust stranger study
after reading the responces of a bogus stranger, the particpnats rate the bogus stranger on a number of dimension including how likely it is that they would liek the person in question.
the more similar the paritcpant is to the stranger the more they like them.
early effects of physical attractiveness
attractive infants receive more affection and playfull attention form their mothrs

elementary school teachers tend to assume attractive pupils are smarter and better behaved.

why does physical attractiveness have such an impact.
it affects our immediate gut reaction


hot girlfriend study.

reward theory of interpersonal attraction
people tend to like those who provide them with rewards, by pleasing oru sences and by boosting our status in the eyes of others.
social exchange theory
a theory based on the fact that there are costs and reward in all relationships and how people feel about a realtionship depends on thier assessments of costs and rewards
equity theory
a theory that maintains that people are motivated to pursue fiarness or equality in their realtionships with rewards adn costs shard roughly equally amoung all members.
The Influence of Minority Opinion on the Majority
the boarder between blue green is not always clear

when experimenter showed the particpants these stimuli int the presence of a minoiry responded who responded green and recorded who particpants

when minority responded green consistnenty the true particpants responded 8 percent of the time.

norm of reciprocity

gave the experimenter a coke

then asked him a favour he was more likely to help

door in the face
the first favour is so large and unresonable that it will be refused and the smaller request seems more reasonable

- Take peeps to the zoo, or sit with juvineile delinquents 2 hour a week for two years.
- However the request does not work when the two requests are made by different individuals.

food in the door techique
starts with a small request to which everyone compalies. the idea is that the initial agreement to teh small request will lead to a chagne in a indiviudals self image as somone who does this sort of thing. the person then has a reason for agreeing to subsequent larger requests.
postie mood emotion based approach
postive moods increase complaince

because of mood maintenance theory

we interpret favors as less threatening and less intrusive when we are a good mood.

negative mood
when people feel quilty they are often motivated to get rid of this awful feeling. Should enhance compliance

negative state relief hypothesis

gotta get rid of thsi negative mood so lets be charitable.

attachment thoery
a theory about how our early attachment with our parents shape our realtionsips for the remainder of our lives

Secure Attachment Styles
- Attachment style characterized by feelings of security in relationships individuals with this style re comfortable with intimacy and want to be close to other during times of threat and uncertainty
Avoidant Attachment Style
- An attachment style characterized by feelings of insecurity in relationships. Individuals with this style exhibit compulsive self reliance prefer distance from others and are dismissive and detached during times of threat and uncertainty.
Anxious Attachment Style
- An attachment style characterized by feelings of insecurity in relastionships. Individuals with this style compulsively seek closeness, express continual worries about relationships and ecessivly try to get closer to others during times of threat and uncertainty.

- Attachment styles are stable across life that is the attachments your form early in life shape how you realte as an adult to yoru romantic partners your children and your friends.

- found that anxious individuals were more likely to have experienced partner who were divorced, the death of a parent or abuse during childhood

- study

- Observed romantic partners leaving airport, attachment style correlated to amount of grief or physical demonstrations of sadness or contact upon saying goodbye.

relational Self Theory
a theory examines how prior relationships shape our current beleifs, feelings and interactions vis a vis people who remind us of significant others.

if particpants listed traits like silly or irreverent when describing what she was like with her father

these traits were more likely to appear in her self description two weeks later.

communal relationship
relationships in which individuals feel a special responsiblity for one anoutehr giving according to the principle of need.
exchange relationships
individuals feel little responsiblity toward in which giving and receiving are governed by conerns about equity and reciprocity and are often short term .
what is power
typically defined as the ability to control our own outcomes and those of others and the freedom to act

where does power come from
status: an evaluation of attributes that produces differences in respect to prominance

authority: is power that derives from institutionalized roles.

Dominance: is a behvoir that has the acquisition or demonstration of power as the goal

approach inhibition theory
if you have power you should be less concerned about the evaluations of others and more inclinde to engage in approach related behvoir to satisfy desires.
triangular theory of love
a theory that states that there are three major components of love, passion intimacy and commitment

- Passion: when indivuals feel unqiue desire adnd hcemicstiry and those feelings are receptorcated.
- Intimacy: comfort security in thes sense of being close, of knowing each other and feeling there identies merge.
- Integration of self concepts.
- Commitment
- As intimacy deepens a sence of commitment develoopes.
- Commitment of resources
- Commitment of pragmatic demands such as social life occupation and soclocailization.
- Study
- Romantic partners are faster to label traits as true of themselves when traits are true of their partner as well.

investment model of romantic satisfaction
investment in realtionship
and few alteranative parnters

relationships and dangerous attributions
dissatsified distressed couples make attributions that cast the realtionship in a negative light.

he bought be flowers because he is cheating on me.

creating strong romantic bonds
captialize on good
active constructive

be playfull
humour and laugher task
non humor and laughter task

care and forgive


modern racism
is identified as a rejection of explicitly racist beliefs while enduring a maintain suspicion and animosity towards minority groups

- If the situation offers no justification or disguise for discriminatory action, their responses will conform to their egalitarian values. But if suitable rationalization is readily available, the modern racists prejudices were emerge.

justification for disguse of discriminatory action
- Study
- Helping a person on the ground
- If you are the only person there you will help
- But if you are not the only person there and he is black you might say that other people have more experience training to help rationalization of racism.
- Study
- Applicants
- Rejecting applicants who excelled at some dimensions and did not at others, could say that the other dimensions are more important even if you are just being racists.

robbers cave experiment
2.5 week summer camp
Two groups
Eagles and rattlers. A consistent heircharitical structure emerged within each group, with effective initators the boys made suggests being rated the most popular
Brought together for a tournament were they would compete.
The competitive nature of the tournament was designed to encourage each group to see the other as a impediment to the fulfillment of its own goals and hence a foe.
There was quite a bit of intergroup hostility.
Boys who were either athletically giften or who advocated a more aggressive stance toward the outgroup tended to gain popularity.
The boys estimates revealed clear ingroup favouratism overstating the number of beans their ingroup members picked up and underestimating how much the outgroup members picked up.

once they were given a superordinate goal they become freinds

biased infomration processing
stereotypes can be self reinforcing actions that are consistent are noticed and deemed significant and remember whereas those at variance are dissmised and ignored.


black shoving vs white shoving
encoded it at more serous actions

self fulfilling prophecy
acting in a way that tends to produce the very behvoir that we expected in the first place


when a applicant was black the interviewer tended to sit farther away and humm and haww more

distinctiveness and illusory correaltions
- An erroneous belief about a connection between events, characteristics or categories that are not infact realted.
- Distinctive events capture attention.
- By definition minority groups stick out
- Also negative behaviors stick out
- As a result these become over represented in memory.
- Also means that negative behavior on the part of members of a minority groups is doubly distinctive and doubly memorable.

explain away the exceptions
- Subtypeing: explain away exceptions to a given stereotype by creating a subcategory of the stereotypes group that can be expected to differ from the group has whole.
- One way to do this is by attributing behavior consistent with the stereotype to the dispositions of the people involved and attributing inconsistent behavior to external causes.
- These different levels of abstraction carry different connotations, the more concrete the description the less it says about the indiuval involved

zajonics Theory
argues that the presence of others tends to facilitate teh performance on simple well learned tasks but to hinder performance on difficutl or novel tasks

arousal tends to make people more inclinde to do the thing they were inclined to do.

cockroach study
he predicted that cockroaches running in a simple maze would get to the goal box more quickly when together than wen alonge but that those running in a complex maze together would take onger to reach the chamber.
testing mere presence
Had participants
Take of their own shoes
Put on a pair of lab socks
Put on a pair of oversized lab shoes
Put on a similarity lab coat
Markus was interested in how quickly participants could performance the novel tasks of putting on and taking off lab coats socks and hoes as well as how quickly they could peromfred well tasks of putting on their own very fimilar clothes and shoes
Zajonics theory predicts that they should change their own clothes faster and novel clothes more slowly when in mere prnces of another person.
Participants took off and put on their own shoes more quickly and the experiments hoes socka dn coat more slolwly when in the presence of another person.

distraction conflict theory
a theory based on the idea that being aware of another persons presence creates a conflict between attending to the task at hand and that is this attention is conflict arousing that produces these social facilitation effect
anticident conditions of deindividuazation.

diffusion of responsibility

energizing effect of others

stimulus overload.

internal state
lessened self observation and self evaluation

lessened concern with evaluation others
weakening of internal controls

behvoiral effects of diendividuzation
antisocial activity

suicide bating
four times more likely to happen after 6 pm

more than twice as likely if the crowd exceeded 300

conduct of war
as predicted there was a strong correlation between individualism and aggressiveness in warfare
Halloween Mayhem
children who were asked thier names by candy giver were much less likely to take too much money or candy
group polarization
tendency for group decisions to me more extreme than those made by the individual what eer way the individuals are leading the discussion tend to be made them lean further in that direction.

persausive arguments account
social comparison
people think they are more risk aversive than the average person
valuing risk

persuasive arguments account
in agroup each person is likely to be exposed to a new argument that is expanded hsi pool of arugments which is likely to screw is risk predispiotion
valuing risk
American college students typically value risk taking over caution.

- Heterogeneous groups tend to outperform homogenous groups when it comes to making the most
When it come to making the most effective decisions.
Media availability internet more homogenous groups more extreme me opinions fox news.

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