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US Hist TAKS set #2


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Martin Luther King, Jr.
*Believed in non-violent civil disobedience
*Led the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) ending segregation on city buses
*Wrote Letter From A Birmingham Jail, 1963
*Organized the "March on Washington" and delivered "I Have a Dream" speech (1963)
*Won Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
*Marched for voting rights (1965)
*Opposed Vietnam War
*Assassinated in 1968
Thomas Jefferson
main author of Declaration of Independence
Alexander Hamilton
one writer of The Federalist Papers
James Madison
one writer of The Federalist Papers; 4th president of the US (1809-1817)
John Jay
one writer of The Federalist Papers
Scientific Revolution
(use of the scientific method) Impact: New ways of viewing world; development of scientific laws, hopes of altering the environment.
subsistence farming
In a traditional economy, families generally grow fod for themselves.
the occupation, business, or science of cultivating the land, producing crops, and raising livestock
cottage industries
Production of goods by hand at home or in smnall shops.
market-oriented agriculture
Farmers grow cash crops to sell on the market for a profit.
commercial industries
Producers manufacture goods, usually in a factory by machine, to sell at market.
traditional economy
People follow tradition to answer the three basic economic questions.
textile industry
manufacturing of raw material that is used for making fabrics
a nation governed by elected representatives rather than a king
4th Amendment
no unreasonable searches
5th Amendment
due process protections
3rd Amendment
no quartering of soldiers
6th Amendment
fair and impartial trial
7th Amendment
trial by jury in civil actions
9th Amendment
Along with the 10th Amendment, states that all powers given to the federal government in the Constitution are reserved to the states and the people, and that people have additional rights beyond those listed in the Constitution.
Treaty of Paris
British surrender at Saratoga
Industrial Revolution
(use of machinery, factories, steam power) Impact: Mass-produced goods at low prices, improved standards of living, increased people's life expectancy.
Nullification Crisis
Issue: Whether a state had the power to nullify a federal law within its borders.
Civil War
a military conflict between the USA (the Union) and the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy) from 1861 to 1865
The Federalist Papers
(1787-1788) consist of 85 essays written to persuade states to ratify the new Constitution; included these arguments: Republican Form of Government, Need for a Stronger Government, Protections against Tyranny, Protection of Minority Interests
Common Sense
(1776) pamphlet by Thomas Paine; asserted that the American colonies received no advantage from Great Britain, which was exploiting them, and that every consideration of common sense called for the colonies to become independent and establish a republican government of their own
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments added to the Constitution in 1791
Magna Carta
(1215) The king was forbidden from introducing most new taxes without the permission of a council of nobles. The king also could not execute, imprison, or take the property of any free man except after a trial by jury or according to the law of the land.
drafted in 1787 by delegates in response to Americans feeling that the new central government had too little power to do its job properly; took the place of Articles of Confederation; went into effect early in 1789

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