This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

ch 18 sage notes


undefined, object
copy deck
Heliocentric view
that earth revolved around sun and sun was center of universe
Scientific Revolution
new age of science
Rene Descartes
Discourse on Method advocated use of deductive reasoning-employed deductive reasoning to prove existence-"cogito ergo sum" "I think; therefore, I am"-logic-science must start with clear and incontrovertible facts and subdivide each problem into as many parts as necessary-relationship between algebra and geometry-analytical geometry-Cartesian dualism
Scientific method
Bacon's inductive method and Descartes deductive reason formed backbone
Catherine the Great
one of greatest rulers n European history-became queen after husband assassinated-lover of French culture-imported western culture-educational reforms-restricted torture-allowed limited religious toleration-strengthened govt.
3 partitions
Annexed Polish territory with Prussia and Austria-1772, 1793, 1795
Salon movement
women played major role-many of brightest minds of Enlightenment assembled to discuss major issues-took part in discussions
perhaps most influential of all Enlightenment philosophes-challenged traditional Catholic theology-influential social criticism inspired many to call for change, setting the stage for the French Revoltuion-most famous quote against religious intolerance "Ecracsez l' infame" "Crush the infamous thing"
Inductive method
begin with inductive observation, then form a hypothesis, conduct experiments, and then organize the data
Adam Smith
Wealth of Nations-considered Bible of capitalism-believed economy is governed by natural laws of supply and demand
taught need for spiritual regeneration and a moral life that would demonstrate one's having been born again
The Structure of the Human Body-renewed and modernized the study of anatomy
Joseph II
ruled with mother, Maria Theresa, as coregent-greatest of Enlightened Despots-emphasis on reforms-abolished serfdom-freedom of religion and civic rights to Protestants and Jews-allowed freedom of press-reformed judicial system-abolished torture-expanded state schools-established hospitals, insane asylums, poorhouses, and orphanages-parks and gardens-German official language
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy-explains principle of universal gravitation
Natural science and reason
fundamental notion was that natural science and reason could explain all aspects of life
Pragmatic Sanction
1713-issued by Leopold and agreed to by Great Powers that Hapsburg Empire would remain intact under daughter's rule
Francis Bacon
formalized empirical method that had already been used by Brahe and Galileo
State of nature
humans are basically good but lack protection
Spirit of Laws
called for separation of power in govt. into 3 branches-goal to prevent tyranny and promote liberty-principle of checks and balances would ensure that no single branch of govt. became too powerful as the other two branches could check excess power
attacked rationalism and civilization as destroying rather than liberating the individual
Maria Theresa
not Enlightened-assume Hapsburg Empire from father, Charles VII-improve condition of people through absolute rule-centralized control of empire-brought Catholic church under control-promoted economic development
John Wesley
founder of Methodism
Catholic sect in France argued against idea of an uninvolved or impersonal God
believed in progressive education; learning by doing; self-expression encouraged
leader of physiocrats in France who opposed mercantilist policies-sought to reform the existing agrarian system by instituting laissez faire in agriculture
Royal Society
scientific society in England-most successful and prestigious
Seven Years'' War
Maria Theresa sought to regain Silesia from Prussia and gained Russia and France as allies-conquer Prussia and divide territories
developed laws of motion-experimental method-acceleration experiment-law of inertia-developed telescope
Frederick the Great
one of greatest rulers in German history-son of Frederick William I-strong military education
David Hume
argued against faith in both natural law and faith-claimed human ideas were merely result of sensory experiences-undermined emphasis on reason
War of Austrian Succession
Frederick invaded and annexed Silesia, part of the Austrian Hapsburg empire-Frederick violated Pragmatic Sanction whereby the Great Powers recognized that Charles VII's daughter, Maria Theresa, would inherit entire Hapsburg empire-Prussia defeated Austria
emergence of a secular world view for the first time in human history
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
France and Austria, traditional enemies, now allied against Prussia-Britain, traditional ally of Russia, supported Prussia-bloodiest war since 30 Yrs War
John Locke
Two Treatises of Civil Govt. philosophical defense for Glorious Revolution-purpose of govt: protect natural rights: life, liberty, property-Essay Concerning Human Understanding-state of nature-tabula rasa
Prussian nobility-backbone of Prussia's military and state
Denis Diderot
Encyclopedia-perhaps greatest and most representative work of philosophes-political and social critiques-popularized views of philosophes-teach people critically and objectively
Liberum veto
unanimous agreement for govt. to act
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Social Contract-believed that too much of an emphasis on property, and not enough consideration of people, was a root cause of social injustice-general will: a consensus of the majority, should control a nation-believed that man was in a simpler state of nature was good-a noble savage was corrupted by the materialism of civilization
Marquis di Beccaria
On Crimes and Punishment-sought to humanize criminal law based on Enlightenment concepts of reason and equality before the law-views influenced Enlightened despots
Mary Wollestonecraft
promoted political and educational equality for women
Nicolaus Copernicus
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres-heliocentricism
Tabula rasa
human mind was born as blank slate and registered input from senses passively
Classical Liberation
political outgrowth of Enlightenment-belief in lassez faire capitalism-belief in progress, human dignity and human happiness-religious toleration, freedom of speech and press, just punishments for crimes, equal treatment before law
Sir Isaac Newton
incorporated astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with physics of Galileo into an overarching theory explaining order and design to the universe-Principle of universal gravitation
Cartesian dualism
divided all existence into the spiritual and material
Baron Paul d'Holbach
System of Nature-argued humans were like machines, completely determined by outside forces
William Harvey
On the Movement of the Heart and Blood-explained how blood was pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body
religious arm of Enlightenment-existence of God was rational explanation of universe and form-created universe and then stepped back and left it running like a clock
First servant of the state
Frederick claimed to be this
German pietism
argued need for spiritual conversion and religious experience
Jean de Condorcet
Progress of the Human Mind-utopian ideas also undermined legitimacy of Enlightenment ideas-identified 9 stages of human progress and predicted 10th stage would bring perfection
Pierre Bayle
Critical and Historical Dictionary-advocated complete toleration of ideas-skeptic-major criticism of Christianity and its attempt to impose orthodoxy
Treaty of Paris
most important peace treaty of 18th century and most important since Treaty of Westphalia-Prussia permanently retained Silesia-France lost all colonies in N. A. to Britain-Britain gained more territory in India
member of French nobility, hated absolutism of Louis XIV-Spirit of Laws
Enlightened Despotism
philosophes inspired and supported reforms of Enlightened despots-believed absolute rulers should promote good of people-religious toleration, streamlined legal codes, increased access to education, reduction or elimination of torture and death penalty
Tycho Brahe
built observatory and collected massive data on observations of universe
Pugachev Rebellion
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed
Immanuel Kant
greatest German philosopher of Enlightenment-separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge-science could describe nature, it could not provide a guide for morality
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
father of microscopy-developed powerful microscopes-first to see and write about bacteria, years plants, living organisms in drop of water and circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries
committed to fundamental reform in society-popularized Enlightenment, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Jean Jacques ROusseau, Diderot, Beccaria, Quesnay, Smith, Wollestonecraft, d/Holbach, David Hume, Jean de Condorcet, Immanuel Kant,
Johannes Kepler
assisted Brahe-mathematically proved Copernican thoeyr-3 laws of planetary motion: orbits of planets are elliptical; planets do not move at uniform speed while in orbit; time it takes for planet to orbit sun is directly based on distance from sun

Deck Info