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Culinary Study Group


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Long-grain rice
Is the most versatile and popular worldwide. The grains remain firm, fluffy and separate when cooked. However long-grain rice can become sticky if overcooked or stirred frequently during cooking
165 degrees F
poultry, and anything stuffed, microwaved or reheated must reach this temperature to be served
155 degrees F
eggs for holding, ground meat and pork must reach this temperature to be served
New potatoes
Are small, immature potatoes (of any variety) that are harvested before their starches develop. True new potatoes are waxy with high moisture content and a thin delicate skin
To mix one or more foods until smooth and creamy
a mixture of water, salt, sugar and spice (80% salt)
subjective reactions, experienced cognitively, communicated by behavior
Pureed Soup
A soup usually made from starchy vegetables or legumes; after the main ingredient is simmered in a liquid, the mixture, or a portion of it, is pureed.
malt vinegar
strong, sharp flavored vinegar made from cereal grains and barley
Line worker
an employee who works on line; the cook that operates the line to prepare cook to order food
flour + butter or fat (hot)
modified atmosphere cooking
the system of packaging foodstuffs wherein the atmosphere within the package is different from the normal composition (vacuum packaging/CAP)
a mixture of raw starch and cold liquid used for thickening.
to finely slice or shred leafy vegetables or herbs.
Carry Over Cooking
The continued cooking of a food after it has been removed from the cooking source
a dry-heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat to a food submerged in hot fat; foods to be deep fried are usually first coated in batter or breading
boning knife
knife, 6 to 7 inch curved blade is used to bone various meats, poultry and fish
a cool red center; pink otherwise125-130°F 52-55°C
Well done
Brown throughout with no sign of pink>160°F >71°C
how to create a good service plan
identify problems and their causes, set goals, consider available resources, develop policies and procedures, obtain feedback and monitor results
to cut into football-shaped pieces with seven equal sides and blunts ends
Jus lie
Also know as Fond lie; a sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch; often used like a demi-glace, especially to produce small sauces
pure olive oil
oil from the second pressing of olive cakes with acidity levels between 3% and 4%. Smoke point is 410^F
cooperative or coordinated effort on the part of a group of persons acting together as a team or in the interests of a common cause.
A crust formed during the process of clarifying consommé; it is composed of the clearmeat and impurities from the stock, which rise to the top of the simmering stock and release additional flavors.
pommes duchesse
boiled potatoes that have been dried out, pureed, seasoned, combined with egg yolks and butter
pommes lyonnaise
peeled potatoes cooked in salted water, cut into round slices and sauteed with sliced onions
oil + vinegar + salt + pepper
classic diced potato shape 15mm square
Carry-over cooking
refers to the phenomenon that food retains heat and continues to cook after being removed from a source of heat. The larger and denser the object being heated, the greater the degree of carry over cooking.
To dip in boiling water, making the skins of fruits and nut meats easy to remove; pre-cook
a method of farming that does not rely on synthetic pesticides, fungicides, herbicides or fertilizers
to peel by removing the skin or outer layer of a vegetable or fruit
are shaped like small bulb onions with one flat side. When peeled, a shallot separates into multiple cloves, similar to garlic. They have a mild, yet rich and complex flavor. Shallots are the basis of many classics sauces and meat preparations; they can also be sautéed or baked as a side dish
Enriched rice
Some grains specially white rice and oats, are usually enriched with calcium, iron, and B-complex vitamins
Duchesse Potatoes
a puree of cooked potatoes, butter and egg yolks, seasoned with salt, pepper and nutmeg; can be eaten as is or used to prepare several classic potato dishes
a system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks; these tasks are often related by cooking method, equipment or the types of food being produced.
foods cut into Flat Square, round or triangular with dimensions of ½ inch x ½ inch x 1/8 inch (1.2 centimeters x 1.2 centimeters x 3 millimeters).
white beef stock (made with blackened onions)
foods cut into matchsticks shapes of ¼ inch x ¼ inch x 2 inches (6 millimeters x 6 millimeters x 5 centimeters)
responsible for roasted, broiled, grilled and braised meats.
To let food stand in a marinade
See durum wheat
fond de veau brun
brown veal stock
(1) to process food to achieve a smooth pulp; (2) food that is processed by mashing, straining or fine chopping to achieve a smooth pulp
to reduce a stock or sauce
a common method used to cook shaped potatoes, it has three steps blanch, sautee, roast
good first impression on interviewer
well-grommed appearance, positive attitude, good manners, smile
shallow pan with sloping sides
balsamic vinegar
smooth, sweet and sour flavored vinegar made in Modena Italy.
tall, straight sided saucepan with a single long handle
pommes mont d'or
pommes gratinee with a liason of egg yolks
To coat with flour or other fine substance
To cut into pieces less than 1/8"
tips for writing a cover letter
grab the reader's attention, get the reader's interest, tell the reader what you want, say you look forward to an interview
a dry-heat cooking method that uses conduction to transfer heat from a hot pan to food with the aid of a small amount of hot fat; cooking is usually done quickly over high temperatures
sieve or sifter used to sift flour into sauces
potage lie
a bound soup
To make an edge with a scalloped effect; as in a pie crust
steam-jacketed kettle
free standing stainless steel bowl for large quantities of stocks, soups and pastas
pommes dauphine
cooked, dried, pureed potatoes mixed with pate a choux, seasoned, formed and deep fried
(1) French for "stock" or "base"; (2) The concentrated juices, drippings and bits of food left in pans after foods are roasted or sautéed; it is used to flavor sauces made directly in the pans in which foods were cooked.
simple salads
salads made with one main ingredient and dressed appropriately
classic small round potato shape
to strain a stock through a chinois to remove bones and mirepoix
beurre nantais
beurre blanc + double cream
stocks, the foundation of sauces and other dishes
unhappy customers will tell...
an average of 10 people about their experience
trussing needle
long, skewerlike needle used for trussing poultry or sewing stuffed cuts of meat
to remove impurities from a stock by skimming
the stable distribution of microscopic droplets of one liquid in another liquid with which it normally doesn't mix
composed salads
salads that feature several ingredients seasoned separately and presented together on one plate
hard boiled egg yolks, oil, vinegar, puree of scallions or chives
cleaning, peeling and unwrapping or dissection
a good listener...
dont finish sentences, focus on whats being said, restate in own words, ask questions, remain clam, concentrate on key ideas/phrases, read between the lines, spend more listening than speaking
evenly cut vegetables used as aromatic elements to flavor a stock or sauce
To cut into pieces 1/4" to 1/2"
classic tournee shape 7.5cm x 3cm
To cook in liquid so that the bubbles from slowly and break below the surface
flesh of a small young chicken not over 2 l/2 lb suitable for broiling
(Sauté Station Chef) who holds one of the most demanding jobs in the kitchen is responsible for all sautéed items and most sauces.
a shallow, wide, straight-sided pot with two loop handles.
an animal that is allowed to roam freely and forage for food; not kept in a pen at all times
a mixure, usually acid/oil base to soak food in so as to loosen connective tissue and add flavor
pommes lorette
pommes dauphine with cheese added
To make palatable by adding salt, pepper or seasonings
To combine a solid ingredient with a liquid until a solution is formed
pommes soufflees
thick slices 7cm x 3mm
(1) Complex carbohydrates from plants that are edible and either digestible or indigestible (fiber); (2) A rice, grain, pasta or potato accompaniment to a meal
sauteed cutlets (usually veal or poultry) that have been pounded thin and coated with flour
this process draws out moisture and eliminates any medium which bacteria can grow
general agreement; opinion reached by a group
sealing (coating)
this product forms a barrier to outside microorganisms and bacteria (confit)
egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice, salt, tarragon, chervil, a reduction of white wine vinegar, shallots, peppercorns and tarragon
Yield grade
a grading program for meat that measures the amount of usable meat on a carcass
roux brun
a roux made from browned flour
carmelized proteins that form on the bottom of a roasting pan or saute pan as items are browned
Converted rice
Is parboiled to remove the surface starch. This procedure also forces nutrients from the bran into the grain's endosperm. Therefore converted rice retained more nutrients than regular milled white rice, although the flavor is the same. Converted rice is neither precooked nor instant; in fact, it cooks more slowly than regular milled white rice
to remove the tissue forming the hard outer layer; to strip the skin off.
Employee feedback
participants are often selected from each department of the operation, changing the participants once in a while gives everyone an opportunity to contribute
To pulverize by pressing and working with a whire whip
maillard reaction
process occurs when proteins (amino acids) and sugars combine to turn a mixture brown
young castrated male chicken or domesticated fowl
raw starch combined with cold liquid
a la minute
at the time of service
pommes croquette
pommes duchess piped into logs, breaded and deep fried
sauces meres
mother sauces
a stock from which all tiny impurities have been removed (clear, sparking broth)
Green meat
freshly slaughtered meats that have not been allowed sufficiant time to age and develope tenderness and flavor
oignon brule
blackened onions
a soup that is bound with a white roux, sotck and a liason of eggs
white wine vinegar
sweet and clean tasting vinegar. Compliments mild greens
(1) A cooking method for grains in which the grains are lightly sautéed in butter and then a liquid is gradually added. The mixture is simmered with near-constant stirring until the still-firm grains merge with the cooking liquid. (2) A Northern Italian rice dish prepared this way
le canard
cold smoking
this method is achieved by first curing a product and applying smoke at temperatures below 100^ F
mayonnaise with green herbs or chlorophyll
meat slicer
a motorized tool with a sharp circular blade attached
to cut vegetables into traditional oval shapes
To sprinkle with flour
To lessen the strength, thickness or flavor of a mixture
a seasoned shellfish puree flavored with white wine, cognac and heavy cream
rice wine vinegar
sharp and tangy (Chinese) or smooth and mellow (Japanese) vinegar produced from rice
a l'etuvee
to cook vegetables for use at the time of service (a la minute)
To rapidly beat so as to incorporate air into a product
The vegetable cook who is in charge of preparing vegetables, soups, starches and eggs.
A mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream used to thicken and enrich sauces.
serrated knives
knife, preferred knives for slicing breads and rolls
Thick Soups
Include cream soups and puree soups. Most soups can be classified by cooking technique and appearance as either clear or thick.
peler a vive
peel the skin and rind off of a citrus fruit
Is a rich, liquid milk product containing at least 18% fat. It must be pasteurized or ultra-pasteurized and may be homogenized. Cram has a slight yellow or ivory color and is more viscous than milk. It is used throughout the kitchen to give flavor and body to sauces, soups and desserts. Whipping cream, containing not less than 30% milkfat, can be whipped into a stiff foam and used in pastries and desserts.
classic round potato shape
To cut into cubes with six equal-sized sides
responsible for working many stations
Durum wheat
A species of very hard wheat with a particularly high amount of protein; it is used to make couscous or milled into semolina, which is used for making pasta
responsible for all vegetable dishes, egg dishes, soups and side dishes
Mise en place
French for "putting in place" refers to preparation and assembly of all necessary ingredients and equipment.
To swirl or stir a liquid (usually wine or stock) in a pan to dissolve cooked food particles remaining on the bottom or "fond"; the resulting mixture often becomes the base for a sauce.
rules established for better customer service
dress code, comping menu items, accepting reservations
Brown rice
Is the whole natural grain of rice. Only the husk has been removed. Brown rice has a nutty flavor; its chewy texture is caused by the high -fiber bran. Brown rice absorbs more water and takes longer to cook than white rice
fish chef responsible for the cleaning and preparation of all fish dishes and their sauces and garnishes
to sift flour into a sauce
Fabricated cuts
single portion cuts coming from the subprimal cuts.
Standard Breading
the procedure for coating foods with crumbs or meal by passing the food through flour, then an egg wash and then the crumbs; it gives foods a relatively thick, crisp coating when deep-fried or pan-fried
glacer a brun
glazed cooking that gives the vegetable a brown shine
round, shallow pan with sloping sides
Tomato Concassee
peeled, seeded and diced tomato
a cooked mixture of equal parts flour and fat, by weight, used as a thickener for sauces and other dishes; cooking the flour in fat coats the starch granules with the fat and prevents them from lumping together or forming lumps when introduced into a liquid.
Sauce Espagnole
Also known as brown sauce, a leading sauce made of brown stock, mirepoix and tomatoes thickened with brown roux; often used to produce demi-glace.
a clear, unthickened liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry or fish and their bones as well as from a mirepoix, other vegetables and seasonings.
Fond lie
Also know as Jus lie; a sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch; often used like a demi-glace, especially to produce small sauces.
Clear Soups
Unthickened soup, including broths, consommés and broth-based soups.
An intermediary sauce made by adding cream to chicken velouté.
beurre manie
flour + butter (cold)
a la grecque
this method includes using a mixture of olive oil, onions, white wine, coriander, peppercorns, lemon, salt and bouquet garni
beurre maniere
flour + butter (cold)
one step potato shapes
includes pommes cheveaux, pailles, gaufrettes, chips and liard
Beurre Noisette
clarified butter browned slowly and seasoned with vinegar or lemon juice and capers
flour + butter or fat (hot)
A coarse paste made of finely chopped mushrooms sautéed with shallots in butter used in sauces and stuffing
canola oil
Canadian rapeseed oil that is low in saturated fats and lacks flavor. Smoke point is 435^F
roux blond
a roux that has a pale coloration
whisks (wire whips)
used for incorporating mixtures that are not too dense, balloon type are used to incorporate air into mixtures or eggs
2/3 mayonnaise and 1/3 whipped cream
To cook to the browned stage (sugar, onions)
To secure the wings and legs of poultry with twine and pin
To form tiny flakes by rubbing food against a grater
foods cut into cubes of 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch (3 millimeters x 3 millimeters x 3 millimeters); a 1/16 inch (1.5 millimiters) cube is referred to as a fine brunoise. (2)Foods garnished with vegetables cut in this manner.
mealy potatoes
all-purpose potatoes, such as idaho potatoes
fond de volaille
white chicken stock
Jasmine rice
Is aromatic long-grain rice. Similar to basmati, it is grown in Thailand and used throughout Southeast Asia
a series of voluntary programs offered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to designate a food's overall quality
the act of tying meats so that they cook evenly and hold a uniform shape
mother sauces
bechamel, espagnole, tomato, hollandaise, veloute
virgin olive oil
oil with an acidity no greater than 3% acidity.
fond de veau blanc
white veal stock
this method retards bacterial growth by lowering the ratio of water (usually in fruit)
To cut into pieces 1/8" to 1/4"
danger zone
between 40^F and 140^F, food should not spend more than 4 hours in this range
medium, round, shallow pan with straight sides
The method of frying foods without the use of baskets by just submerging the foods in the hot oil and retrieving them by the use of tongs or a spider
is a mix of the egg white protein albumen, ground meat, an acidic product, mirepoix and other ingredients; it's used to clarify a broth.
Sachet d' epices
French for "bag of spices"; aromatic ingredients tied in cheesecloth bag and used to flavor stocks and other foods; a standard sachet contains parsley stems, cracked peppercorns, dried thyme, bay leaf, cloves and optionally garlic.
An emulsified sauce made of butter, egg yolks and flavorings (especially lemon juice).
Onion brulee
French for "burnt onion"; made by charring onion halves; used to flavor and color stocks and sauces
needle-nosed pliers
useful for removing fish bones
combination of equal parts (normally) onions and carrots (or 50% onions, 25% carrots, 25% celery)
long cut that can be cut into macedoine (5 mm)
three step potato shapes
includes pommes soufflees
gratin dauphinois
sliced potatoes mixed with hot cream and poured into a casserole (rubbed with garlic) and topped with gruyere cheese and baked
stem thermometer
common type of kitchen thermometer that measures heat through a metal stem just past the dimple
To cut foods into 1" strips the size of match sticks
To cook in a liquid, such as poached eggs
utility knife
knife, used for coring and/or slicing tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables
an elastic network of proteins created when wheat flour is moistened and manipulated
to cut foods into stick-shaped pieces, approximately 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch x 2 inches (3 millimeters x 3 millimeters x 5 centimeters); a fine julienne has dimensions of 1/16 inch x 1/16 inch x 2 inches (1.5 millimeters x 1.5 millimeters x 5 centimeters); (2) the stick-shaped pieces of cut food.
hollandaise and mustard
Parboiled rice
Is rice that goes through a process called parboiling that means is partially cooked in boiling or simmering liquid; similar to blanching but the cooking time is longer
Clarified butter
butter made clear by heating and removing the sediment of milk solids; purified butter fat
two step potato shapes
includes allumettes, mignonettes, frites and pont neuf
the colored outer portion of the rind of citrus fruit; contains the oil that provides flavor and aroma.
garde manger
cold station. all cold articles, hors d'oeuvres, terinnes, pates, salads, galatines and cold sauces are prepared by the garde manger staion
a basic sauce made from white or brown stock used in the preparation of derivitive sauces (typcally veal stock reduced by half)
the basic sauté pan with sloping sides and a single long handle
a dry-heat method of cooking in which food is placed in a moderate amount of hot fat
ultra-high temperature pasteurization, extremely hot steam is used to kill microbes
Is made by removing the bran and germ from durum wheat berries. The endosperm is then steamed, pressed to form tiny pellets and dried. Couscous is available in varying degrees of coarseness; medium-fine is the most popular. Couscous is prepared by steaming over water or stock in a pot called couscousiere.
1 mm cube made from julienne cut
stocks that are reduced by 9/10 to a syrupy consistency and intense flavor
a flat metal frame supported by folding legs, contains different blades to cut vegetables into a variety of sizes and thicknesses
Basmati rice
Is one of the finest long-grain rices in the world. It grows in the Himalayan foothills and is preferred in Indian cuisine it is slightly aromatic, with a sweet, delicate flavor and a creamy yellow color. Is usually aged to improve its aromatic qualities and should be washed well before cooking
Cream Soup
A soup made from vegetables cooked in a liquid that is thickened with a starch and pureed; cream is then incorporated to ad richness and flavor.
comment card
forms should be kept short and simple, results are often tabulated and circulated so that every manager and employee is aware of them
Foods with a browned or crusted top; often made by browning a food with a bread-crumb, cheese and/or sauce topping under a broiler or salamander
to cut a food item into large segments (1.5 - 2.75 inches)
glacer a blond
glazed cooking that gives the vegetable a golden brown shine
this process preserves food with vinegar or fermentation
temperature just below the boiling point
To combine ingredients
In addition to written forms, managers can call a sample of guests the day after their visit to get feedback over the telephone
food chopper
has a rotating bowl that passes under a hood where vertical cutting blades chop the food
a cutting method that produces thin strips (ribbons) of herbs or leafy vegetables
Whipped potatoes
Also called "mashed potatoes" are a common way of serving potatoes in many countries worldwide. It is made by mashing boiled potatoes (peeled or unpeeled). Sometimes other ingredients such as milk, cream, butter, vegetable oil, garlic, cheese, bacon bits or sour cream are added. A French variation adds egg yolk for Pommes duchesse that is piped through a pastry tube into wavy ribbons and rosettes, brushed with butter and lightly browned
egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice, salt, cayenne pepper
A thick, creamy sauce consisting of oil and vinegar emulsified with egg yolks, usually used as a salad dressing.
paring knife
knife, used for peeling vegetables and may be used for turning
hard boiled egg yolks, mustard, chopped cornichons, capers, parsley, chervil, tarragon, oil, vinegar and julienned egg white
the intermixture of fat and lean in a cut of meat
food service will spend 5 times as much...
attracting a customer than keeping an old one
mayonnaise, tomato coulis and diced peppers
large, rectangular, heavy bottomed pan with low to medium-high sides and two handles
mystery shopper
participants are hired to visit an operation and report on their experiences, feedback can be more in-depth if participants know about and establishment's systems and procedures
mother sauces
bechamel, espagnole, tomato, hollandaise, veloute
Au Jus
Roasted meats, poultry or game served with their natural, unthickened juices.
This French word is roughly equivalent to "juice", but has more specific meanings in French cookery than the English word. It is used primarily for the gravy of a roast, made by diluting the pan juices with water, clear stock or any other suitable liquid, and then boiling it until all the goodness in the pan has been absorbed into the stock. Dishes described as au jus are prepared or served with this gravy. It is also used for a thickened or clear brown stock, especially veal stock (jus de veau). Finally, it is used for the juice squeezed from raw vegetables or fruit.
good impression on customers
dress appropriately, practice good hygine, wear clean wrinkle-free uniforms or clothing in good condition, maintain clean hair held back or up, clean hands and nails, dont wear strong fragrances, dont eat drink smoke or chew gum while serving
executive chef
adminstrator whose responsibilities include all kitchen related operations including menu planning, costing and scheduling. Also responsible for maintaining communication with all the heads of the other various departments.
stocks that are reduced by 9/10 to a syrupy consistency and intense flavor
large, round, shallow, straight-sided pan with 2 handles
sheet pans
rectangular pans with very shallow sides
fry briefly over high heat
a basic sauce made from white or brown stock used in the preparation of derivitive sauces (typcally veal stock reduced by half)
A bread or pastry garnish, usually toasted or sautéed until crisp
To boil until partially cooked
5 mm cube made from jardiniere cut
Cooking a liquid such as a sauce until its quantity decreases through evaporation. To reduce by one-half means that one-half of the original amounts remains. To reduce by three-fourths means that only one-fourth of the original amount remains. To reduce au sec means that the liquid is cooked until nearly dry.
when handling complaints
follow through, apologize, dont blame, offer a solution, listen calmly, sympathize, accept responsibility
145 degrees F
meat, pork, fish and eggs for service must reach this temperature to be served
to trim round sides of peeled, washed and tronconceed vegetables to obtain flat surfaces to be cut
the portion of a knife's blade that extends inside the handle.
To separate food particles with a sieve
boullion de legumes
vegetable stock
Brown butter
clarified butter browned slowly and seasoned with vinegar or lemon juice and capers
to thinly slice onions, shallots or fresh herbs
similar to cooking a l'etuvee, but a small amount of sugar is added and the liquid is reduced to form a shiny, sweet coating
consomme double
a consomme that has been enriched and concentrated
motor housing with a jar that fits of over the housing
to shell or hill (as in peas)
Medium rare
a warm red center, otherwise pink130-140°F 55-60°C
this is the method of holding food that is fried down by the second basket; by inserting the second basket into the basket frying the food to brown both sides while cooking
Al dente
Italian for "to the tooth"; used to describe a food, usually pasta, that is cooked only until it gives a slight resistance when one bites into it
pommes gratinee
pommes puree sprinkled with shredded cheese and melted butter
Glace de Viande
A dark, syrupy meat glaze made by reducing a brown stock.
bernaise and tomato concasse
Shish Kebob
is a dish consisting of small cubes of meat threaded on a skewer (şiş in Turkish) that are grilled or roasted. Any kind of meat may be used, and fruit or vegetables are often placed on the skewer as well.
Silver skin
the tough connective tissue that surrounds certain muscles; see elastin
Recovery time
the length of time it takes a cooking medium such a s fat or water to return to the desired cooking temperature after food is submerged in it
A cooking method for grains in which the grains are lightly sautéed in hot fat and then a hot liquid is added; the mixture is simmered without stirring until the liquid is absorbed
Shallow poach
a moist heat cooking method that combines poaching and steaming; the food (usually fish) is placed on a vegetable bed and partially covered with liquid (cussion) and simmered
pommes puree
boiled potatoes passed through food mill combined with milk, salt, pepper and nutmeg and finally mounted with butter
corn oil
bland oil that is an excellent general purpose cooking oil. Smoke point of 410^F
more than 80% of customers who never return are...
unhappy with indifferent/poor attitudes of employees
cook in a simmering liquid
roux brun
a roux made from browned flour
champagne vinegar
mellow and delicate vinegar. Use in fruit vinegars and light dressings
how do employees benefit from good service
higher profits for employees and operation, higher tips for servers, job security, career advancement opportunities, personal job satisfaction
Bouquet garni
fresh herbs and vegetables tied into a bundle with twine and used to flavor stocks, sauces, soups and stews.
pommes frites
regular fries 7cm x 8mm
white roux
a roux that is cooked without coloration
A moist-heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 212®F/100®C) liquid to the food submerged in it; the turbulent waters and higher temperatures cook foods more quickly than do poaching or simmering
Prepared or garnished with almonds
Onion pique
French for "pricked onion"; a bay leaf tacked with a clove to a peeled onion; used to flavor sauces and soups
to chop coarsely (usually tomatoes)
Au sec
Cooked until nearly dry.
French word for "rewetting"; a stock produced by reusing the bones left from making another stock. After draining the original stock from the stockpot, add fresh mirepoix, a new sachet and enough water to cover the bones and mirepoix, and a second stock can be made. A remouillage is treated like the original stock; allow it to simmer for four to five hours before straining. A remouillage will not be as clear or as flavorful as the original stock, however. It is often used to make glazes or in place of water when making stocks.
Primal cuts
the primal devisions of muscle, bone and connective tissue produced by the initial butcherin of the carcass
Smoke point
the temperature which fat begins to break down and smoke
most guests who are dissatisfied
never return
a stock made with fish bones or shells from shellfish and vegetables simmered in a liquid with flavorings
fond de volaille brun
brown chicken stock
To cut off the outer covering with the use of a knife
fond de gibier
brown game stock
To make a mixture smooth using an up and over motion
salade digestive
a combination of lettuces tossed with a simple vinaigrette that serves to cleanse the palatte before dessert
Derived from the roots of several tropical plants, is similar in texture, appearance and thickening power to cornstarch and is used in exactly the same manner. Arrowroot does not break down as quickly as cornstarch, and it produces a slightly clearer finished product although it is much more expensive
how to get career skills
commit to doing your best in studies and activities, join school clubs and activities, volunteer in your community, take time to read and learn or your own, become familiar with basic comouter skills
To cook quickly in fat at a high temperature
Pan Gravy
A sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from roast meat or poultry and combining them with a roux or other starch and stock.
a person who is of equal standing with another in a group
good service results from...
training, skill, effort, stamina, and commitment
To cook a liquid until the quantity is half the amount you started with
number of dissatisfied customers that complain
a featured article of merchandise sold at a loss in order to draw customers; a person who rules or guides or inspires others
used as a basket to hold foods that are breaded, this method is to prevent foods from sticking together during frying. To dip foods into heated oil as to cook with the intention of crisping the outside while cooking the inside to the desired temp. while keeeping the oil from permiating the insides. As to cook in heated oil without leaving the over powering thought of the fry
good service
when customers feel like guests in your home
the liquid used for shallow poaching
cooking by direct exposure to radiant heat (as over a fire or under a grill)
(1) Any shiny coating applied to food or created by browning; (2) the dramatic reduction and concentration of a stock; (3) a thin, flavored coating poured or dripped onto a cake or pastry
hot smoking
this method is achieved by (usually) curing a product and cooking with smoke at temperatures above 100^ F
pommes cheveaux
hair 7cm x 1 mm
pommes pont neuf
thick fries 7cm x 1cm
glacer a blanc
glazed cooking that does not change the color of the vegetable being glazed
peanut oil
heavy oil that is used for frying, deep frying, emulsions and southern style roux. Not suitable for dressing. Smoke point is 450^F
Sauce Béchamel
A leading sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and adding seasonings.
French for "English Cream" is a light pouring custard used as a dessert cream or sauce. It is a mix of sugar, egg yolks and hot milk, often flavored with vanilla. The cream is made by whipping egg yolks and sugar together until the yolk is almost white, adding hot milk little by little, and cooking in a double boiler. The sauce is stirred with a spoon until it is thick enough to coat the back of the spoon, and then must be withdrawn from the heat. If the sauce reaches too high a temperature, it will curdle. Cooking temperature should be between 69®C and 85®C; the higher the temperature, the thicker the resulting cream.
roux blond
a roux that has a pale coloration
to finely cut onions and shallots (fine, tiny dice)
To pack a mixture into a cavity (turkey, bell pepper)
pommes mignonettes
thin fries 7cm x 6m
the process in which a stock is made more flavorful and perfectly clear
pariesienne scoop (melon baller)
used to cut fruits or vegetables into balls
pommes liard
round 4cm x 2mm thick
also known as the pantry chef, the cook in charge of cold food production, including salads and salad dressings, charcuterie items, cold appetizers and buffet items; (2) the work area where these foods are prepared.
pommes campagnarde
gratin dauphinois with stock instead of cream and added onion and bacon
To reduce to fine particles by grinding; to crush
vert pre
classic diced potato shape 5-7mm square
potages tailles
a soup that contains vegetables of consistent sixes that is not strained
a potage in which liquid and some fresh or dried vegetables are cooked together and then thickened with the pureed vegetable
Arborio Rice
Is a round, short-grain rice used primarily in Italian dishes such as Risotto. It is very sticky, with a white color and mild flavor
to cut cooked meat or poultry into portions
slicing knives
knife, 12 to 16 inches, may be round tipped and used for boneless roasts or salmon or pointed tipped used for carving roasted items with bones
thick steak cut from the beef tenderloin
cracked black peppercorns
Dry Heat Cooking
Heat is conducted without moisture; used to cook tender cuts of meat
bouquet garni
a mixture of herbs and aromatics used to flavor stocks (usually thyme, bay leaf, parsley stems and peppercorns; wrapped in leek greens or cheese cloth)
Beurre Manie
flour + butter (cold)
a l'anglaise
to cook vegetables prior to service and reheat at time of service
Russet potatoes
Commonly referred to as Idaho potatoes, are the standard baking potato. They are long with rough, reddish-brown skin and mealy flesh. Russets are excellent baked and are the best potatoes for frying. They tend to fall apart when boiled. They are marketed in different sizes categories and should be purchased in the size most appropriate for their intended use
flour, eggs, salt, butter and bread crumbs used to coat then deep fry
to remove grease from the top of a stock or sauce with ladle during cooking
second in command under the chef de cuisine and supervises all the cooks. Prepares and serves food and is in charge of all stations and kitchen operations when the chef is absent.
To spoon liquid or fat over food as it cooks
a blanc
this is water + flour + lemon juice + salt + oil
a person who oversees the tasks of others
pommes sautees a cru
raw, trimmed potatoes sliced 2-3mm thick and sauteed in a single layer of oil until crisp and moist
sauce chef responsible for the preparation of all stocks and sauces and all meat and poultry preparations
A point
a French term for cooking to the ideal degree of doneness; when applied to meat, refers to cooking it medium rare
warm pink center, otherwise brown140-150°F 60-65°C
To simmer in a small amount of liquid, such as to stew fruit
elements of quality service
courteous, efficient, cleanliness, speak clearly
pommes anna
sliced potatoes arranged in concentric circles, cooked in a buttered poele and finished in the oven
a food added to enhance the natural aromas of another food; aromatics include most flavorings; such as herbs and spices, as well as some vegetables.
sharpening stones
natural stones, carborundum stones, and diamond studded blocks, availble in a range of grits, used to create a sharp edge on a knife
To make food brown by roasting, pan frying or broiling
A moist-heat cooking method in which heat is transferred from steam to the food being cooked by direct contact; the food to be steamed is placed in a basket or rack above a boiling liquid in a covered pan
3/4 hollandaise sauce and 1/4 whipped cream
canneleur (channel knife)
knife, used to channel citrus fruits and various vegetables into decorative patterns for garnishes
to finely mince herb sprigs in small bunches (used to flavor and garnish)
Compound butter
also known as a beurre compose, a mixture of softened whole butter and flavorings used as a sauce or to flavor and color other sauces
fumet de poisson
white fish stock
long cut that can be cut into brunoise (1 mm)
to stir a stock or sauce while it is in an ice bath to facilitate cooling
French for half glaze; a mixture of half brown stock and half brown sauce reduced by half.
a soup that is bound with a white roux and cream
sweet sabayon
aerated, stirred custard that is cooked on the stovetop over a bain marie
white roux
a roux that is cooked without coloration
A leading sauce made by thickening a white stock (fish, veal, or chicken) with roux.
conical strainer with a handle
marmite basse
short stockpot
to simmer
responsible for preparing and plating all desserts and pastries
brown beef stock
pommes darphin
julienned potatoes cooked in a poele until golden brown and finished in the oven
the act of looking carefully and closely
flesh of a medium-sized young chicken suitable for frying
liquid cure (brine)
this process involves submerging an item in brine
cider vinegar
naturally sweet vinegar made from apple juice. A yeast is added to convert sugar to alcohol
egg yolks, mustard, vinegar (or lemon juice), salt and white pepper
Butcher's yield
butcher's yield is a system for figuring food costs across all aspects of an animal. It gives the cook a more accurate cost for the Edible Portion (what you actually serve to the diner) and establishes a cost baseline for using the left over parts in other dishes and recipes.
pommes gaufrettes
waffle chips 2mm thick
empirically identifiable/proven through observation
(1)the period during which freshly killed meat isallowed to rest so theat the efffects of rigor mortis dissipate; (2)the period during which freshly milled flour is allowed to rest so that it will whiten and produce less sticky doughs; the aging of flour can be chemically accelerated
tilting shallow kettle
stainless steel bowl with a hinges lid for large quantity sautes and braises
freeze drying
this method involves the total elimination of all humidity through repeated temperature changes
cooking (meat) by dry heat in an oven (usually with fat added)
waxy potatoes
new potatoes, such as red bliss
Standard Breading Procedure
To coat with flour or other fine substance
chef's knife
knife, can range from 6 to 14 inches, most versatile of all knives and is used for chopping, slicing, dicing and filetting
the transfer of heat caused by the natural movement of molecules in a fluid (whether air, water or fat) from a warmer area to a coolere one; mechanical convection is the movement of molecules cause by stirring.
To remove the stone (pit) or seed of a fruit
Monter au Beurre
To finish a sauce by swirling or whisking in butter (raw or compound) until it is melted; used to give sauces shine, flavor and richness.
French word for "dry" and when used to describe still wines, indicates that the wine has little if any residual sugar left after fermentation, meaning the wine is dry (not sweet). In sparkling wines such as champagne, however, the word takes on quite another meaning "sec" indicates a relatively sweet wine (demi-sec even sweeter), while the driest sparkling wines are referred to as Brut.
vacuum packaging.
red wine vinegar
sharp, sweet and full bodied vinegar. Compliments tart, strong greens
sherry vinegar
rich and smooth vinegar made from oloroso sherry wine of Spain.
tile shaped vegetables cut from jardiniere slice 1-2 mm
immersion style blender
infused oils
oil with essence of herbs, spices, garlic, ginger, or fruit zest
quick freezing
this is done by immediately cooling a product to -40^F and holding at -4^F
to add water to cooked bones and aromatics and cook again
a flavorful liquid obtained from the long simmering of meats and/or vegetables.
Focus group
customers are called together regularly to brainstorm with managers on how customer service can be improved
Leafy Vegetables
are a diverse group of plants with high water content that may be served raw, but are usually cooked. Also called "greens" are among the most nutritious vegetables with significant amounts of vitamin A and C. The more important leaf vegetables are spinach, kales, collards, mustard, sorrel and Swiss chard
beurre blanc
reduction of shallots and white wine vinegar with cold butter cubes incorporated
kitchen scissors
helpful tool for cutting butcher's twine and parchment paper and for trimming fish
examples of negative behavior
indifference, argumentative, inflexible, the runaround, talking down/condescending, robot
this can be done with steam, dry heat or boiling and then sealing in a container
a sauté pan with straight sides and single long handle
chef's fork
used for turning meat, fish and poultry during cooking
this is done by lowering the temperature of an item to 32^F
mixed salads
salads made with a mixture of several ingredients combined and seasoned together
To brown surface of meat by heating at a very high temperature for a short time
this method preserves food by killing of active microorganisms (primarily fruit)
sunflower oil
neutral pale oil that is high in polyunsaturated fats that is used for frying or sauteing. Smoke point is 390^F
hotel pan
rectangular pans often used as containers to hold cooked foods in steam tables, hot boxes or steamers and also can be used for marination or refrigeration
To heat milk/cream to just below the boiling point
food processor
heavy motor housing, detachable bowl and cover and various blades
Court bouillon
water simmering with vegetables , seasonings and an acidic product such as vinegar or wine; used for simmering or poaching fish, shellfish or vegetables
responsible for roasted, broiled, grilled and braised meats.
Tomato Sauce
A leading sauce made from tomatoes, vegetables, seasonings and white stock; it may or may not be thickened with roux.
A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids; it is often temporary (for example, oil in water)
to pull off stringy side filaments (as in string beans)
pommes allumettes
matchsticks 7cm x 5mm
mayonnaise with mustard capers, minced cornichons, chervil, tarragon, parsley and anchovy essence
to dot the top of a sauce with butter to prevent the formulation of a skin
raw starch combined with cold liquid
hardened, finely ridged rod with a handle and guard and a round or flat profile, used to keep knife edges aligned
chef de cuisine
working chef who is involved in the kitchen during prep and service. Responsible for ordering and other administrative duties.
to loosen sucs from the bottom of a pan by deglazing with a liquid (wine, stock, water or juice)
sprinkled flour
sprinkled flour
a mixture of coarsely chopped onions, carrots and celery used to flavor stocks, stews and other foods; generally, a mixture of 50% onions, 25% carrots and 25% celery, by weight, is used.
To manipulate with a pressing motion, accompanied by a folding and stretching motion, as in kneading bread dough
adult female chicken
tips for good service
greet people, smile, look at people when you talk, always say thank you, be pleasant when serving others, dont act annoyed/irritated, cooperate with coworkers
Any concentrated, mashed, or pulverized food
responsible for broiled, grilled and deep-fried foods
hollandaise, orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest
Cut and fold
To combine by using two motions (1) cutting vertically through the mixture (2) turning the mixture over and over
To bring to a temperature above freezing
to sift flour into a sauce
classic tournee shape. 5cm x 1.5cm
An American stew or hearty soup featuring in Creole and Cajun cooking. A stew of mixed ingredients, including vegetables, okra in particular, with onions, peppers, tomatoes and garlic. Fish, crab, oysters, poultry, meat and/or spice sausage may be added. The okra acts as a thickening agent (okra is also known as Gumbo in West Africa) but is not the essential ingredient in all recipes for Gumbo. File powder, made from sassafras leaves, may be added as well as or instead of okra to thicken and flavor gumbo.
A la minute
at the time of service
sesame oil
light and mild oil made from raw (light) or toasted (dark) sesame seeds. Smoke point is 410^F
To cook a liquid where the bubbles rise and break on the surface
To remove the outer covering with the use of a knife
skills for getting ahead
communication, computer, math, critical thinking, problem solving, positive attitude, team-member
Fines herbs
Are a combination of parsley, tarragon, chervil and chives widely used in French cuisine. The mixture is available dried, or it can be created from fresh ingredients.
marmite haute
tall stockpot
this is done by lowering the temperature of an item to below 0^F
extra virgin olive oil
oil from the first cold press of high-quality olives. Less than 1% acidity. Smoke point of 250^F
A toxic substance found in the skin of green potatoes. In large amounts it interferes with the normal transmission of nerves. Even small amounts cause gastrointestinal distress. Potatoes are stored in the dark to prevent greening and the formation of solanine. Having narcotic properties formerly used to treat epilepsy.
pommes mousseline
pommes puree with heavy cream and additional butter
Wild rice
Is prepared in the same manner as traditional rice, although it is actually the seed of an unrelated reedlike aquatic plant. Wild rice has long, slender grains with a dark brown to black color. It has a nuttier flavor and chewier texture than traditional rice.
chef de partie
in charge of an individual station and usually has an assistant (commis) to assist during prep and service.
to disgorge by soaking bones to remove blood (produces clearer stock)
to cut into very small pieces when uniformity of shape is not important.
pommes pailles
straws 7cm x 1-2mm
To cook by submerging in hot fat or oil
meat grinder
consists of a motor housing, feed tray, pusher, blades and dies of varying sizes
this process (used for liquids) involves heating to 180^F to destroy disease-causing bacteria and then rapidly cooled
pommes chips
chips 1-2mm thick
To let stand in liquid below the boiling point to bring out the flavor or color of a food
a framework of metal bars used as a partition or a grate
dry cure (salt)
this process involves rubbing an item with salt and leaving to sit for a specific period of time (usually fish, sometimes meat)
special needs customers
elderly, families with children, disabled, special dieters, food allergies
removing the skin on a leg of poultey and cutting at the knuckle (spelling may be wrong) may also be known as frenching?
flavored vinegars
infused vinegar with herbs, fruits, garlic or shallots
timely service involves
serving at customer's pace, aware of whether customers are in a hurry or want to linger, greeting arriving customers, seating customers promptly, serving a course 5 minutes after the preceding one is finished, presenting the check after the meal has been finished, never rushing customers who arrive close to closing
the result of the solidification of a clarified stock that has a high content of gelatinous ingredients
Is a very fine white powder, is a pure starch derived from corn. It is used widely as a thickening agent for hot and cold sauces and is especially popular in Asian cuisines for thickening sauces and soups. Liquids thickened with cornstarch have a glossy sheen that may or may not be desirable
Medium well
mostly brown with a gray center, very little if any pink150-160°F 65-71°C
A rich stock or broth that has been clarified with clearmeat to remove impurities.
flesh of a large young chicken over 3 1/2 lb suitable for roasting
Connective tissue
animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix.
To mix two or more ingredients thoroughly
Moist Heat Cooking
Heat is conducted to a food product by water or steam; method used to cook less tender cuts of meat
rib section of a forequarter of veal or pork or especially lamb or mutton
olive oil, egg yolk, garlic and saffron
to add water to bones and aromatics to produce a stock

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