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us history


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winfield scott
won the battle of mexico city
germany and ireland
most immigrants to the united states in the antebellum period came from which two countries
which side had these advantages: home field, better officers
people posessed an "inner light"/ opposed violence
conquered aztec empire in mexico
great awakening
consisted of a series of religious revivals in america
three-fifths compromise
three of every five slaves would be counted when determining the population of states
election of 1864
lincoln ran against mcclellan whom he previously fired in this election
Act of Religious Toleration
protected catholics in Maryland
claimed that the clergy was hellbound and must be converted
this political faction argued for the passage of the constitution
old lights
rejected the Great Awakening
adams-onis treaty
spain sold florida to the US in this treaty
eventually Lord North repealed all of the townshend duties except the tax on this
monroe doctrine
declared that the western hemisphere as off-limits to europeann colonists
cabeza de vaca
searched for the golden city on the gulf coast
corrupt bargain
a bargain between clay and adams that secured the presidency for J.Q. adams and made clay secretary of state
crossed isthmus of panama and claimed pacific ocean for spain
writs of assistance
general search warrants used by british to cut down on american evasioin of mercantile regulations
macon's bill
stated that america would trade with the first nation (England or France) that recognized american neutrality
kansas nebraska act
prohibited slavery in the kansas and nebraska territories
Treaty of Paris
ended French and Indian war/ France lost all NA holdings/ Britain got everything east of Mississippi and in Canada
embargo act
jefferson's attempt to remain out of war/ america stopped all trade with foreign nations
compromise of 1850
created by clay/ CA entered union as free state, slavery would be decided in NM and AZ by popular sovereignty, no more slave trade in Washington DC, a tougher fugitive slave law
interchangeable parts
eli whitney's idea that allowed factories to be more efficient and machinery to be cheaper and easily fixed.
judiciary act of 1789
created the supreme court and a system of district and appeals courts
developed by samuel morse and greatly affected long distance communication
newburgh conspiracy
a plan to use military to force states to surrender more power to the national government (during the articles of confederation)
planter class
this was the elite upper class in the south
most noteable american enlightenment figure/ Poor Richard's Almanack
established new amsterdam on manhattan island
this caused the surge of german immigration to america
treaty of aix-la-chapelle
ended King George's war and gave louisburg back to france in exchange for land in india
intolerable acts
closed the port of boston until citizens agreed to pay for tea, increased the power of the royal governor, and strengthened Quartering act
glorious revolution
william of orange and mary overthrew the catholic king of england
the irish and germans supported this political party
self-sufficiet farmers/ the largest social group in the south
new jersey plan
called for increased power for national government while maintaining a unicameral congress with equal representation for states
established trading post in quebec
louisiana purchase
jefferson went against his strict interpretation policy and made this purchase doubling the size of the country
bill of rights
virginia would not agree to the constitution until this was promised to be added to it
san jacinto river
this battle was the deciding battle of the war for texan independence and secured the victory for texas
townshend duties
taxed lead, glass, tea, paper, and paint/ it was an indirect external tax and the money was used to pay royal governors
tried to gain unity with God outside organized religion/ famous followers include henry david thoreau
william lloyd garrison
one of the most famous and contriversal white abolitionists
whose idea was nullification in response to the tariff of abominations
war of 1812
this war was caused by british impressment of american sailors, the presence of England in US waters, and the violation of america's neutral rights
battle of yorktown
last battle of the american revolution
Rhode Island
settled by religious dissident Roger Williams after being banished from Massachusettes bay colony
fur trade/ kind to the natives/ did not force their religion
salutatory neglect
leaving the colonies alone to govern themselves as long as they send you money
treaty of tordesillas
moved line of demarcation westward allowing portugal to claim brazil
john brown's raid on harpers ferry
john brown and followers seize a federal arsenal in virginia and try to start a slave revolt
indian leader at the battle of tippecanoe
when the union captured this city the anaconda plan finally took affect
to keep this border state in the union lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus
protestant reformation
martin luther led a protest against the catholic church and reformed christanity
has the power to impeach and remove president
line of demarcation
pope splits new world in to eastern for portugal and west for spain
era of good feelings
a time following the war of 1812 when american morale was high and the whole country agreed on everything except slavery
Massachusetts bay colony
established by puritans led by Winthrop/ government consisted of governor and representative assembly
declaratory act
repealed the stamp act and declared that parliament has authority to rule the colonies
van buren
who won the election of 1836 (8th pres)
hudson river school
what school was famous for its art and focused on capture the quickly escaping american wilderness
theory that held that each nations power was measured by its wealth in gold to secure wealth and keep gold they established colonies
Sons of Liberty
group of colonists that joined together to oppose greenville's policies
spider in the hands of an angry god
ancient ones
commonwealth v. hunt
this court case made unions legal in massachusetts
bunker hill/ breed's hill
taken by the british although they suffered 1000 casualties
Land ordinance of 1784
created a method for organizing territorial governments and for attaining full statehood in the ohio river valley
fort sumter
lincoln sends supplies to this place and the south interprets it as an act of war
Nat turner
this slave led a rebellion after seeing an eclipse in virginia in 1831
Fundemental Orders of Connecticut
was the first written constitution in America
conquered the inca empire
appomattox court house
location of general lee's surrender to general grant
Stamp Act Congress
voted to boycott all british goods which resulted in the repeal of the stamp act
chisholm v. georgia
court case that decided that people CAN sue a state they don't live in
the proclamation of 1763, the sugar act, the quartering act, the currency act , and the stamp actwere his policies
gold/ trade with arabs/ take over after Mali
started new slavery
Hartford Convention
a meeting where the federalists called for changes to the constitution during the war of 1812/ end of the federalist party
John Rolfe
developed a strain of tobacco that could grow in virginia
gibbons v. ogden
established federal control over interstate commerce
ware v. hylton
court case that declared that the federal government can strike down state laws
amerigo vespuci
discovered america was not india
lexington and concord
the first military confrontation of the revolutionary war/ minute men exchanged fire with british soldiers who were trying to destroy a colonial stockpile of arms
has the power to veto legislation and conduct foreign policy
chesapeake colonies
economy depended on tobacco
new faith of the Great Awakening that view baptism as very important
labor unions
these developed to protect the rights of laborers
settled by pilgrims
XYZ affair
Adams sent a peace delegation to France to make the french stop seizing american ships/ 3 unnamed french ministers demanded bribes to begin talking/ adams refused
southwest indians
grew beans and maize contained the Anasazi and Hohokam cultures
missouri compromise
created by henry clay/ missouri entered the union as a slave state and maine entered as a free state/ stated that every state north of the 36'30' line would be free and every state below would be slave
Jaques Cartier
fought with the indians in montreal and tried to settle in canada
non-intercourse act
stated that america could trade with anyone except france and england
used canals/ made center city and had organized politics
explored parts of Southwest and discovered the grand canyon while searching for the city of gold
van buren
came up with the idea to polarize american politics in the election of 1828
the autrocities at this battle led to more support for the revolution of texas
molasses act
tax on all foreign molasses/ created to procect british sugar traders
transcontinental treaty
this treaty divided oregan and gave the united states control of oregon territory over the 42nd parallel
popular sovereignty
the idea that the issue of slavery should be decided by a vote in the territory
polk claimed that we should do this to texas since we already bought it with the louisianna territory
King George's war
war of austrian succession/ also fought in america and americans captured french louisburg
organized as a proprietary colony by W. Penn for Quakers
anaconda plan
union military strategy to take control of the southern coast, the mississippi river, then split the south in two
majority of early settlers died of disease and starvation
French and indian war
seven years war/ france was trying to take over Ohio Valley
emancipation proclamation
ended slavery in areas of rebellion
electoral college
the constitution says that the president and vice president will be chosen by this
MuCulloch v. Maryland
court case declaring that the federal government has supreme power over states and citizens
leading power in west africa/ trade with muslims/ timbucktu
estates given to conquistadores using indian slaves
half-way covenant
provided limited church membership to those children of Puritans who did not profess saving grace
mississippian indians
slash and burn agriculture/ cahokia super city/ mound builders
wrote the reports on public credit outlining ways to build a strong national economy based on industry and commerce
eastern woodlands indians
nonfarming/ furthest trade networks/ mound builders
navigation acts
goods had to pass through britian before being sold in America/ certain specialized goods made in america must be sold only to England
boston massacre
five bostonians were killed when british soldiers tried to stop a riotous crowd
all nature has a spirit
Easton Treaty
the Native americans switched from supporting the French to the British during the French and Indian war with this treaty
Dartmouth v. Woodward
court case declaring that states could not interfere with international contracts
established new netherland in canada
King William's war
the league of augsburg/ a war of most of europe against france's Louis XIV fought mainly on American soil
battle of gettysburg
the south's first attack in the north/ a lot of casualties
new lights
accepted the great awakening
wrote "letters from a farmer in pennsylvaina" in protest to the townshend duties
bill of rights
first 10 ammendments to the constitution
James I
catholic king of england/ he didn't want to share his power with the protestant parliament
God is like a clock maker
which side had these advantages: much richer, more industrialized and able to manufacture weapons, more people, control of the US navy, railroads
manifest destiny
the idea that it was america's responsibilty to expand from coast to coast/ coined by john sullivan
circular letter
massachusetts legislature passed this calling for the repeal of the townshend duties
treaty of paris
treaty that ended the American Revolution and recognized the united states as an independent nation
jefferson davis
president of the confederacy
Specie Circular
this act required people to pay for land with specie
vasco de gama
circumnavigated africa/ opened trade with india by force
northern democrats who lincoln believed had traitorous ideas during the civil war
national bank
the strict versus loose interpretation of the constitution first arose concerning the issue over what?
this political faction was against the passage of the constitution
Battle of New Orleans
last battle of the war of 1812/ occured after the treaty of Ghent was signed/ Andrew Jackson led the americans
mountain men
these people were a propaganda technique that the government used to convince ppl to move west
settled by virginia company of london
had advanced navigation tools
started large scale exploration
battle of saratoga
an american victory and convinced the french to side with the colonies in the american revolution
lincoln douglas debates
lincoln calls douglas out at these asking how he can support both popular soverignty and the dred scot decision
indian removal act
provided for the removal of all indian tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River
political party that wanted to aid france in their revolution
panic of 1819
occured when state banks gave too many loans and did not have the money to endorse bank notes this caused trade and land prices to go down
santa anna
mexican general in the mexican american war
land ordinance of 1785
created a method for surveying land and organizing townships into sections with one section set aside for support of education
webster-ashburton treaty
settled the border between maine and canada
Rhode Island
granted religious toleration/ populated by exiles
steel tipped plow
developed by john deere/ made farming possible in the west
anti-war democrat who criticized lincoln as a dictator and was exiled to the south
Know-nothing party
political party developed out of nativist fears over german and irish immigration and anti-catholic sentiments
treaty of ghent
treaty that ended the war of 1812 and restored everything to its status before the war
settled in greenland and eskimos kicked them out
second continental congress
met in april 1775/ created a continental army headed by george washington/ created the olive branch petition and the declaration of indpendence
judiciary act of 1801
decreased the number of supreme court justices from 6 to 5
john quincy adams
won the election of 1824 (6th pres)
first english colony/ everyone disappeared
american literature
james f. cooper, walt whitman, henry w. longfellow, edgar allan poe, and nathaniel hawthorn all help to develop and influence what?
revived the anglican church during the great awakening
Currency Act
forbade colonists to issue currency not redeemable in gold or silver
this president dropped the embargo, created the non-intercourse act, and passed macon's bill
virginia plan
called for a bicameral legislature with representation based on population and an executive branch
discovered the hudson river for the netherlands
extend 36'30' line
polk supported this solution to the issue of slavery in the new territories
potato famine
this caused the surge of irish immigration to america from 1845-1850
quartering act
required colonists to pay for maintenance of British troops stationed in America
killed hamilton in a duel and was tried for treason when he tried to create an empire in texas
Barbary affair
pirates in nortern africa were demanding a tribute to allow us to trade/ jefferson sent marines and defeated the pirates (1801-1805)
battle of yorktown
british general cornwallis, trapped by washington and french fleet, surrendered
native american women
proveded food/ family support/ matrilineal inheritance
founder of the bear flag republic
native religions
sun based
was the idea that states had the right to ignore any law that they felt was unconstitutional
lecompton constitution
pro-slavery constitution of kansas that was supported by buchannan but congress did not approve it
ponce de leon
discovered florida for spain
liard rams
ships designed to break blockades they were prevented form being sold to the south
chesapeake-leopard affair
britain violated american neutrality by attacking america 20 mi off the coast and impressing american sailors
marbury v. madison
adam's last minute appointee to the supreme court was not given his commission/ court case that established judicial review
established colonies on eastern coast of north america
proclamation of neutrality
washington issued this during the french revolution because he wished to remain out of foreign affairs
New Hampshire
chartered by Charles II to accomodate overflow population from Massachusetts
levi strouss
this man was an example of german skilled labor and success
political party against helping the french in their revolution
dred scot case
court case that stated that blacks were not meant to be citizens/ slaves were property so congress could not prohibit it from any territory
Blanche bruce
black senator first black to be elected to a full term
Bacon's rebellion
rebeled against virginia government and led an attack against indians
in northern antebellum america birth-rate and family size _________ (increased or decreased)
hiram revels
black senator from north carolina during reconstruction
pinckney's treaty
treaty with spain that opened the mississippi river to americans and settled the northern boundry of florida
secured the rio grande border thus instigation the mexican war
pet banks
during jackson's war on the bank he removed government deposits from the national bank and put them in these
founded by puritan T. Hooker after a disagreement with Winthrop
split into a north and south portion
sugar act
taxed molasses imported into the colonies/ required goods to pass through england. it was strictly enforced
washington's _________ consisted of secretary of state, war, treasury, and attorney general
pacific coast indians
permanent settlements/ preserved food/ totems an patlaches
first proprietary colony/ provided refuge for catholics
George Washington
defended Fort Necessity and got captured at Fort Duquesne during the french and indian war
vera cruz
site of amphibious assult with half of taylors troops
New York and New Jersey
territory given to James Duke of York/ conquered from the dutch
suffolk resolves
declared that the colonies did not have to abide by the coercive acts/ called for local military protection/ called for a boycott of british goods
connecticut compromise
called for a bicameral legislature with a senate with equal representation and a house of representatives with representation based on population, as well as an executive branch
de soto
discovered mississippi river while looking for the city of gold
Pitt's promise
"england will pay for the French and Indian war if the americans will fight it"
peninsula plan
McClellan makes an advance on richmond but stalls at the last minute and the plan fails
northwest ordinance
outlawed slavery in the ohio river valley and provided settlers with a bill of rights
mutual give and take
Anne Hutchinson
moved to Rhode Island after being banished from Massachusetts
Braddock's road
British general built this to Fort Duquesne. he was very loud and drew the attention of Mohawk indians
in the election of 1848 taylor ran with out this
tried to escape the industrial world by retreating to communal life
started by joseph smith when an angel showed him the lost books of the bible and gave him special glasses to read them with
rush-bagot treaty
stated that the 49th parrellel was the border between the US and canada and there would be no military in the great lakes
Coode's rebellion
secured Maryland for William and Mary and requested a royal governor
seneca falls convention
one of the first feminist conventions
wilmot proviso
this document claimed that all the territory gained by the mexican american war should be free
ex parte merryman
court case in which lincoln says that he is the president and therefore has the right to suspend the writ of habeas corpus and decide when an area is in rebellion
Leisler's rebellion
secures New York for William and Mary and fixes harbors but fires shots against soldiers of william and mary and was arrested
stamp act
first direct tax on Americans/ imposed duties on newspapers and legal documents
South Carolina
developed rice as staple crop
horace mann
tried to reform public education and make it more structured
vetoed bank bills and tariffs even though he was a whig (democrat with a whig on)
andvanced tools from asia/ newest group/ 1st to use bow and arrow
first to conquer in america
eastern united states indians
missisippian and eastern woodlands cultures
william henry harrison
prominent American leader in the battle of wabush and Tippecanoe
panic of 1837
what crisis took place during van buren's presidency
baron von steuben
joined the americans at valley forge and trained them to be a successful army
first states to succeed
south carolina, alabama, florida, georgia, louisianna, texas, mississippi
North Carolina
absorbed the overflow population from Virginia
first continental Congress
met in philidelphia in 1774 and passed the suffolk resolves
came up with the virginia plan at the constitutional convention
treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
ended the mexican american war and gave TX, NM, & CA to the US and $15 million to mexico
british ship that fought for the confederacy
jay's treaty
treaty with england that settled few issues (during washington administration
circumnavigated the globe
native american commonalities
bow and arrow/ ceramics/ sun based religion/ kinship network system
mayflower compact
established an orderly government based consent of governed
Queen Anne's war
war of spanish succession/ showed weakness of colonies
dominion of New England
started by James II/ contained New England, New Jersey, and New York/ ended when William and Mary came to power
this british ship was captured and 2 confederate embassadors on board were abducted
11th ammendment
declared that a person CANNOT sue a state that they do not live in
william henry harrison
who won the election of 1840 (9th pres)
president during the mexican american war
kinship system
matrilineal/ tribe consensus for decision making/ clan is the basis for justice and war
first permanent english settlement in NA
Proclamation of 1763
King of England drew a line along the Applachian mts. and banned all settlement west of the line.
administration of justice act
was part of the intolerable acts and allowed british soldiers accused of murder to be tried in england
took new mexico during the mexican american war without firing a shot
John Locke
"'life, liberty, and property"

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