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APUSH Grade 11- Sectionalism


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Election of 1840?
Voters are unhappy with the economy.

Whigs- want William Henry Harrison "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" to take office, use the "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign.

Democrats- run "Martin van Ruin"

after one month in office, Harrison dies of Pneumonia.
"Pet Bank"
The national bank is killed- funds must be withdrawn and placed in democratically controlled banks. ("pet")
Election of 1836?
Martin van Buren wins the elsection. Panic arises in 1837 and the whigs attack the democrats of not helping the economy.
Democrats of Jackson (Jefferson Republicans)?
-limited government and equal opportunities
- opposed national bank and high tariffs
- supported by the south, west, workers, and small farmers
Specie Circular?
Purchasing federal land now required gold and silver rather than bank notes. Bank notes lost their value as did land and slaves. There was a panic in 1837, and ultimately, a depression.
Bank of the US Re-charter Bill?
Clay gets the bill to recharter the bank passed- Jackson vetoes it, and it shows he wants to help the common man- helps him get re-elected.
Favored internal improvements, a national bank, and high tariffs.

Supported by New England, the mid atlantic, and the midwest.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt?
1845- victory for labor.
Stated that "peaceful unions" have the right to negotiate with their employers.
Why is the impact of unions limited at this time?
- Periodic Depressions
- Courts/employers are hostile toward unions
- Abundant supply of cheap labor (Immigration)
African Americans?
Were they really free citizens?
Not socially or economically equal, met with racial prejudice, couldn't vote or own land, denied skilled jobs and union membership. Displaced by immigrants from jobs.
Growth of Cities?
Small villages grow into thriving cities (Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Cincinnati, St. Louis)
Transfer points- shipment of farm products to the East and distribution of Eastern manufactured goods.
Reasons for Immigration?
Inexpensive- faster ocean transportation

Europeans driven from homeland- revolutions/famines.

US reputation as a place of opportunity and political freedom.
1/2 of all immigrants at this time are Irish (2 million)
- left in 1840s due to potato famine.
- Roman Catholics discriminated against.
- Unskilled laborers- competed against blacks for jobs.
- Settle in New England- Boston, NY, Philly.
- Entered into politics (Democratic Party).
Left due to political revolutions and economic hardships (1 Million).
- Skilled workers, farmers and artisans.
- Look to settle in the west (cheap fertile land) and become prosperous.
- Not politically active at first, later get involved in education and are opposed to slavery.
Native born Americans who react negatively to the influx of foreign immigrants.
- Fear of immigrants taking their jobs and weakening the culture of the anglo majority. Distrusted Catholics
- Response to immigration.
As the US expands, the definition changes.
1600s- land not along the the Atlantic
1700s- West of the Appalachian Mts.
1800s- West of the Mississippi River, to Cali/Oregon.
Native Americans?
Indians didn't move west voluntarily- pushed west of the Mississippi Rover by white encroachment.
- Great Plains offered relief from white contact (temporarily)
- Indians benefit from use of the orse (introduced by span in the 1500s)
- Cheyenne and Sioux become nomadic and follow the buffalo.
Represented the possibility of a "fresh start"
- Mountainmen-fur trappers, guides from settlers.
- Life on the frontier for settlers was difficult. Hard work, faced disease, malnutrition, Indian raids and isolation.
- Environmental Damage.
Northwest Agriculture?
(From Ohio to Minnesota)
Tied other Northern States
Growth of Cities
Workers pushed for unification.
(Low pay, long hours, and unsafe conditions.)
Corn and wheat become very profitable.
Plows and reapers make the farm more efficient- products are shipped to Urban centers for sale.
Environmental Damage?
Clear out forests, exhaust the soil, and move on. Beavers and buffalo are trapped and hunted to near extinction.
2 Parts to the North?
Northeast (New England and Mid-Atlantic)
all industrial.
Urban Growth?
5% Population in 1800. 15% by 1850.
Opportunities in industry attract people from the farms and European immigrants. Population growth leads to urban problems such as slums, crowded housing, poor sanitation, disease, and crime.
Supreme Order of the Star Spangled Banner?
Nativists form a secret order to oppose newcomers. This causes rioting in the cities.
Big increase from 1830s to 1850s. Most settle in the East, Northeast, or head West- very few travel South.
How did agriculture tie other Northern states?
Federal troops drove Native Americans from land.
Canals and railroads established a common market between East and the Great Lakes.
Loyalty to a specific region (North, East, South)
1820s- The US has a central government and collection of semi-autonomous self-governing states.
Largest populous region (due to high birthrate and immigration)
Industrialized- but most are still involved with agriculture.
Expands from textiles to a number of other goods.
- Labor
- Commonwealth vs. Hunt
- Impact of Unions is limited
Impact of Immigration?
Immigrants strengthen the US economy.
Provide a steady source of cheap labor.
Increased demand for produced consumer goods.
Peggy Eaton affair?
Wife of Adams' Secretary of War- accused of being an adultress.
- Most of his cabinet resigns when he forces the wives to socially accept her.
- John C. Calhoun (VP) resigns and Martin Van Buren takes over as VP.
Indian Removal Act? (1830)
Jackson sympathizes with land-hungry citizens.
Has Indians removed from their homelands and pushed West of the Mississippi River.
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)?
Cherokees are a "domestic, dependent nation" and deserve federal protection.

Jackson states that John Marshall has "made his decision, now let him enforce it."
Cherokee v. Georgia (1831)?
Cherokees say that they are an independent nation.

John Marshall says Cherokees are neither a nation or a state and therefore cannot bring suit.
"Rotation in Office"?
Government jobs should be open after one term in office-

Jacksonians state that ordinary Americans are capable of holding government positions, (not just experts).
Tariff Compromise?
A compromise on the teriff was made, shows Jackson's strong stance on Federal Authority (when the union is at stake). Supports the state's rights. Anti-slavery material cannot be sent by mail.
Nullification Theory?
States could decide whether to obey a federal law, or declare it "null and void".
Alexis de Tocqueville?
French. Democracy witnesses US culture. Democratic atmosphere, informal manners, different classes sitting together at dinner. Transportation and dress was all the same.
Role of the president?
To protect the common man from abuse from the rich and privileged.

Opposed federal spending and national debt.
"Spoils System"?
The government appoints jobs to those who are loyal to the party.
"Equality of Opportunity"?
An adopted American Principle
(for the white man, not the women or blacks).
Politics of the common man.
Politics become more democratic?
White men of lower and middle class begin to vote in large numbers.
Popular campaigning?
Directed toward the common people. Usually involved a band, parades, food, and drink.
Popular elections of President?
Political, not state- legislatures chose presidential electors for its state.
Differences between the Upper South and the Lower South?
The lower south depended more on cotton and slavery. The upper south resembled the free states of the north. Politically, the upper south approached secession far more reluctantly than the lower south. The upper south's cash crops were tobacco, wheat, hemp, and vegetables. The lower south's cash crops were sugar and cotton.
What tied the 2 Souths together?
Economic ties- the profitability of cotton and sugar increased the value of slaves throughout the south.
What 3 developments led to the growth of the cotton industry in the South?
The cotton gin, the removal of Indians, and the growth of the British textile industry in the 18th century.
Party nominating convention?
Party Politicians and voters chose the party's candidate (vs. the old way, where political leaders worked behind closed doors).
Where was the cotton belt located?
In the South. It stretched from southern Carolina, to Georgia, to northern Florida, and from Alabama, Mississippi, to central and southern Tennessee and Louisiana, and finally to Arkansas and Texas.
Why was cotton more preferable to raising sugar?
sugar was a "rich man's crop" and demanded a considerable capital investment to grow and process. Cotton could be grown profitiably on any scale.
Relationship between the growth of cotton and slavery?
The more cotton produced, the more slaves were required to tend to it. Therefore the number of slaves increased dramatically from 1790 to 1860, as did the production of cotton.
Why did the old south fail to industrialize?
If plantation owners were to industrialize, slaves could be considered free and ask for equal rights. Also, selling slaves was too expensive and economically doubtful.
White Social classes and their relationships?
Planters- own 20+ slaves

Small slaveholders- less than 20 slaves

Yeomen- nonslaveholding farmers

People of the Pine Barren- "white trash"
4 Reasons that non-slaveholding southerners didn't attack the institution of slavery?
- Some non-slaveholding southerners hoped to become slaveholding.
- Many just accepted the racial prejudice.
- Dreaded the thought that "impudent" blacks might entertain thoughts of social equality.
- Didn't know what slaves would do or where they would go if freed.
Summarize the pro-slavery argument?
Used to say that slavery had been an institution for thousands of years- dating back as far as the Bible. Tried to pass it off as God's will and Christian right.
Force Bill?
Jackson gets congress to pass the force bill- states that the President can take military action in South Carolina because "Nullification and disunion is treason".
Universal Man Suffrage?
Restrictions on white males regarding property and religion are lifted for voting purposes.
Republican Party?
Included John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, and Crawford
Jackson wins popular vote?
Lost the electoral vote. Clay uses his influence to win the campaign for Adams.
Appoints Clay as his Secretary of State-Jackson supporters call it "dirty politics."
National Republicans (support Adams)?
Attack Jackson- call him a murderer, adulterer, gambler, and drinker.
Jackson AKA "Old Hickory"?
War hero, Indian fighter, and slaveholder from the Western frontier.
Election of 1824?
Corrupt Bargain.
Wins easily?
Adams gets New England; Jackson wins the south/southwest. It's close between the northwest and the midstates.
Election of 1828?
Mudslinging, smearing of campaigns:
- National Republicans
- Jacksonian Democrats
- Jackson is "Old Hickory"
- Wins easily.
Adams as president?
Alienates the Jackson supporters even more. They say he violated the constitution with the internal improvements and the tariff of abomination.
"Tariff of Abomination"
Adams puts a law that satisfies the North (manufacturing), the west (agriculture), but alienates the south (raises the cost of manufactured goods).
Democrats of Jackson?
Say that Adams is a rich man who wears silk underwear and provided the Czar of Russia with an American prostitute.
Affirms the Democratic ideal?
"One man is as good as the next"

But what do the critics think of the Spoils System?
Jacksonian Democracy?
"Age of the common man"
"Trail of Tears"?
4000 Cherokee Indians die on a trek Westward, when they were driven from their homeland by the US Army.
South Carolina and the Tariff of Abomination?
South Carolina says the tariff is unconstitutional.

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