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History - Calvert 6th Grade, Unit 2 (Lesson 30 - 4th Review)


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(38) Do you think that all towns developed into cities?
Answers vary.
(35) onager
a wild, donkey-like animal
(33) Describe Catal Huyuk's shrines.
Shrines weren't larger than houses, but had decorated benches and sculptures on the walls.
(35) Where is Umm Dabaghiyah?
Umm Dubaghiyah is on a dry northern plain between the Tigris and the Euphrates.
(35) Umm Dabaghiyah
Umm Dabaghiyah was a small settlement that existed during the Neolithic Age at about the same time as Catal Huyuk.
(35) Compare and contrast Catal Huyuk and Umm Dabaghiyah.
Catal Huyuk was large, organized, diverse, and agricultural, while Umm Dabaghiyah was much smaller, organized, and relied on hunters and trappers.
(33) What animals did the people of Catal Huyuk raise? What did they hunt?
They raised cattle. They hunted deer, bear, and wolves.
(30) Describe the settlement at Ain Mallaha.
The homes of Ain Mallaha were circular and dug below ground level. Stones covered the dirt walls, which were extended to the roof made of reeds. There was a fire pit in the center and a large mortor and pestle for grinding grain. Storage bins could be detected along the walls.
(38) specialization of labor
Specialization of labor is when different people in a society do different specialized and skilled jobs.
(35) How do we know that hunting was important there?
Large surpluses of ammunition have been found there.
(33) Where did the people of Catal Huyuk bury their dead? Why do you think they buried them there?
Graves have been found under the platform type furniture inside the houses. Answers vary.
(33) Did the people of Catal Huyuk have furniture in their homes?
Yes, they built platforms that extended from the walls. These served as benches and tables during the day and beds at night.
(36) Where is Ur located?
Ur is in present-day Iraq, situated where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers meet.
(35) How is surplus tied to trade?
Without surplus, there cannot be any trade. If people had only exactly what they needed, they wouldn't have anything extra to trade.
(33) self-sufficient
To be self-sufficient is to be able to provide for oneself without the help of others.
(36) Standard of Ur
The Standard of Ur consisted of two solid panesl that were carried on a pole--probably carried before a king of a queen in a procession. On each side of the panels were detailed mosaics, one called "Peace," and one called "War."
(33) What allowed the people of Catal Huyuk to be independent?
Having surplus grain, cattle, salt, and building material allowed the people to be independent.
(33) What examples do we have of the arts and crafts of the people of Catal Huyuk?
Needles, beads, hairpins, and fishhooks have been found, and these things demonstrate their arts and crafts?
(33) quern
A quern is a mortor and pestle used to grind grain into flour.
(38) In Ur, what did they trade and what did they trade for?
They traded for grain and woven cloth for timber and stone, as well as gold, silver, tin, lead, copper, and bronze.
(36) famine
A famine is a widespread shortage of food that can cause death from starvation.
(36) What was the role of the king in Ur? Did he have absolute power?
The kind had control over many people's lives, but decisions he made had to be passed before a group of counselors and warriors. He did not have complete power.
(30) domesticate
To domesticate means to train or adapt an animal or plant to live in a human environment, making it more useful to humans.
(38) Can a civilization develop without cities?
(30) Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent was an area shaped like a crescent that extended through parts of today's Middle East. This area was especially fertile.
(33) shrine
A shrine is a place where people worship, usually containing a sacred object or statue.
(30) environment
The environment is all the living and non-living things that make up the surroundings.
(30) Ain Mallaha
Ain Mallaha was an ancient settlement in the Jordan River Valley and is now an archaeological site.
(35) What valuable commodity did Catal Huyuk possess?
(35) How do we know that Catal Huyuk was a trading center?
We know that Catal Huyuk was a trading center because items from Catal Huyuk have been found as many as 600 miles away.
(36) How was the ziggurat built? What did it contain?
Ziggurats also required organization and coopreations of workers. The structure was made of stones and contained both storerooms and workrooms.
(33) Where is Catal Huyuk located?
Catal Huyuck was on a plain in present day Turkey.
(31) agriculture
Agriculture is the science, art, and business of raising animals and plants to supply food for humans. (farming)
(30) Why is a surplus of food crucial to humans' ability to settle in one place?
Surplus food was needed for times when food and grain were not plentiful.
(36) Tigris River and Euphrates River
These two rivers are in southwest Asia in modern Iraq. They are the sites of several ancient civilizations.
(35) obsidian
Obsidian is shiny, dark glass that is formed when hot lava from a volcano cools quickly.
(31) Neolithic
The Neolithic Era was a time when people began using more sophisticated stone tools, living in settled villages, farming and raising animals, and making pottery.
(30) What does Ain Mallaha tell us about the people's lives?
The settlement of Ain Mallaha shows that the people were establishing permanent homes.
(36) How do we know that Ur's success rested on organization and planning?
Irrigation systems were sophisticated in Ur demonstrating how they could work together for a common good.
(30) How did early people gain more control of their environment?
Early people gained control of their environment by domesticating plants and animals.
(38) What are the five features of a civilization?
Features of a civilization include:
1. a stable food supply
2. specialization of labor
3. a system of government
4. social levels
5. a developed culture that includes art, architecture, religion, music, law, and a form of writing
(31) Identify areas of Neolithic farming.
Neolithic farming took place in Meso America, the Andes, West Africa, Nile River Valley, Sudan, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Indo Iranian Area, Huang He Valley, and Southeast Asia.
(30) What do you think early people had to do in order to domesticate animals?
People needed to learn how to capture and control the growth and behavior of animals.
(30) What were the first domesticated plants?
wheat and barley
(35) How widespread was obsidian trade in that part of the world?
Trade occurred in a 600+ miles radius.
(36) How do we know that religion was important to the people of Ur?
The people of Ur build ziggurats.
(30) What happened to animals over time once they became tame? Give examples.
Over time, domesticated animals became smaller, their muzzles shortened, and sometimes their horns disappeared.
(36) ziggurat
A ziggurat was a type of temple tower with a one-room shrine at the top.
(38) What do graves tell us about Ur's social classes?
The more important the person, the more valuable the possessions were that were buried with them.
(30) What were the first animals to be domesticated?
(31) How did farming affect the environment?
Farming affected the environment because animals were displaced. They no longer roamed freely on the lands now being farmed.
(31) Did everyone farm? What did people do with their food surplus?
No, everyone did not farm. Some people still continued to be hunters and gatherers.
(36) What caused the growth of cities?
Because the land could be farmed, people gathered and formed a community that required leadership, planning, and specialized workers.
(36) irrigation
Irrigation is the act of supplying dry lands with water by means of canals, ditches, pipes, and streams.
(38) Who comprised Ur's three social levels?
The three social levels were: (1) government officials, priests, and soldiers; (2) merchants, teachers, laborers, farmers, and craftsmen; and (3) slaves.
(36) How did the people of Ur modify their environment to suit their needs?
The people of Ur dug irrigation ditches in order to bring water to their crops.
(35) How did onagers allow Umm Dabaghiyah to succeed with no farming base?
The trapping and skinning of onagers provided items necessary for living.
(31) What new jobs were created? Why?
Because surplus was now available, people could investigate other trades such as tool making, building, fishing, and crafts, as well as being priests and leaders.
(31) Was early farming trouble-free? Explain.
Early farming still posed problems because of insects, bad weather, and disease. Farmers needed to alter plants so they could survive without attention. Farmers and plants became depended on each other.
(30) surplus
Surplus is an extra amount, more than is needed.
(33) Catal Huyuk
Catal Huyuk was a neolithic town that was in what is now modern Turkey.
(33) Describe Catal Huyuk. What was unique about it?
Catal Huyuk covered about 32 acres and had about 1000 homes that were all connected. Ladders were used to reach doors in varying rooftops. There were no streets.
(31) Which metals were first used in Neolithic times? Name the advantages of this.
Copper and bronze were used allowing for better tools to be made.
(36) What are four features of a city?
leadership, planning, specialized workers, and social groups
(38) How do we know that Ur was a trading center?
Priests kept records of goods that flowed in and out of the city, and these records have survived.
(36) Art is a great source of information on life during ancient times. What does the panel on page 135 tell us about Ur?
Answers vary, but should show that they fought and captured prisoners.
(31) What do you think would be a typical Neolithic meal?
Answers vary.
(38) civilization
A civilization is a complex society with a stable food supply, specialization of labor, a government, and a highly developed culture.
(35) Where would you prefer to live: Catal Huyuk or Umm Dabaghiyah? Explain.
Answers vary.
(31) How did farming impact people's lifestyles? Give an example.
Farmers now had surpluses to trade or store. This surprlus allowed people to investigate other activities or trades.
(33) Why are the ruins of Catal Huyuk layered?
Ruins are layered because when an older home burned or collapsed, a new one was built directly on top.
(33) What was Catal Huyuk's main crop?
The main crop was wheat.
(38) What kinds of workers flourished in Ur?
Chisel workers, gem cutters, fullers, metal workers, carpenters, and leatherworkers, along with judges, doctors, and musicians all flourished in Ur.

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