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Anth: Mex Culture


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What is Colonialism?
Formal political rule by a state over another region. the empire is the state doing the ruling, the colony is the region being ruled. empires date back to 250 ad. by 1754 spain owns majority of the \"new world\" mexico to south america.
What changes in economy and global inequality were there in the colonial era of Mexico?
- incorporation into extra regional markets, not just relying on themselves.
-shift to production for export, no more self sufficiency, now producing luxury items in demand
- cash cropping, cash crops are usually crops which attract demand in more developed nations, and have some export value
-technological investments
- foreign capital investments
-privitization of land and resources
-displacement/ migration
- forced labor

What were global changes Mexico was experiencing?
There was a one way flow of wealth and resources (to spain) and a one way flow of power and control (to mexico). this relates to the theory of cores and peripheries where the periphery is only a third world because of its relationship to the first world.
What is the encomienda system?
the grant of land and labor (people) by the spanish crown to specific individuals where the spanish used slave labor to cultivate food to sell back to spain. bad conditions, very harsh.
Who was De Las Casas?
A missionary who converted after seeing the effects of the encomienda system. he protested the harsh abuse and fought for the New Laws to be passed.
What were the New Laws of 1542
Pushed regulations of the encomienda system, stating native laborers were free people who could not be demanded for labor, also asked for fair treatment and taxes.

What was the Repartimiento System?
system that replaced the encomienda system and was not considered slavery, in that the worker is not owned outright. It however, created slavery-like conditions in certain areas like in silver mines.
What were major economic influences of colonial mexico?
- cash- based economy
- wage labor- when worker sells their labor, and owner pays for labor. basically owner owns laborer
- mining, caused migration, silver became 80% of their exports

these factors lead to:
-displacement, change in how people made a living
- integration into extra regional economies
- global wealth inequality/disparity

What are the levels of spanish politics and social organization?
Spanish Crown
Local government

african slaves

What were the regional shifts from mesoamerica to new spain?
- shift from cultivation for themselves to cultivating luxury goods to sell (instead of making foods for yourself to survive you make goods to sell to make money to survive)
- encomienda to repartimiendo system
- shift to silver mining
- shift from non political mesoamerica to political control of spanish crown
- shift from religious/ higher power social organization in mesoamerica to race based organization.
- shift in population- major decline after genocide and disease, and working conditions

What is nationalism?
the identity in relation to a state, sense of belonging. primacy (importance) of the state in social organization
Who were the Creoles?
People who were born to Spaniards in Mexico. Became known as the \'burgeoning\' flourishing middle class who aspired to be \"masters of their own house\". They wanted to have power as they were the upperclass in Mexico and actually born in Mexico. They didn\'t want to share this power with the lower class though.
What lead to the indigenous rebellions in colonial mexico between 1680-1761?
- widespread famine
- wages and living conditions decline
- caste system and inequality persisted

What was happening in Spain during the inequality in colonial mexico?
Spain was experiencing political trouble with weak leadership.
Charles II, internal revolts, then Charles III who wanted to increase taxes and mining and decrease wealth from catholic church. then takeover by Napoleon Bonaparte from france-- this was the last straw for colonial mexico.
What was the literary club?
A group of mexican members plotting an independence war. Hildago, Allende and De Aldama were the leaders- spainish found out of their plans and killed members. Hidalgo, a creole priest, survived and gathers the mexican people and protests with a speech to protect their nation \"long live our lady of guadelupe, death to the spanish\"--- the mass of people take over and they succeed. but none of the creoles want to step up and rule, so Morelos a mestizo does.
What was the Mexican War of Independence?
an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started in 1810 and lasted till 1821. During this time Morelos was in command and set up a congress to formally declare independence-- but never fully successful because spain sends troops to suppress rebellion and morelos is executed.
What did the constitution that Morelos set up at the Congress of Chilpancingo establish?
- end to slavery
- end to caste system
- breaking up of the spanish monopoly
- widespread voting rights, universal for men
- catholocism official religion

What happens after Morelos is beheaded?
During this time Spain is becoming liberal and the rebellion is becoming more conservative. Interbide, an important general for the spanish crown switches sides and allies with the mexican people- and wins.
What is the Plan de Iguala
it was signed by the army of three guarantees- iturbide teamed up with guerrero (maxican army leader). the plan stated that:
-mexico will gain independence and become a constitutional monarchy
- equal rights for creoles and peninsulares
- catholicism as official religion

-- elect iturbide as emperor, he\'s a duesche and only lasts 10 months. made his birthday a holiday.

What were the challenges for mexico as a new nation and new republic?
- economic instability with decades of war
- the war had a major toll on mining and agricultural economy
- foreign debt
- neocolonialism

What kind of internal political instability took place in the new mexican republic?
- political polarization, with the liberal program (federalists) who wanted free elections, and freedom of religion. the conservative program (centralists) wanted to maintain colonial hierarchy
What was the Constitution of 1824?
- created the Estados Unidos Mexicanos with 19 states and four territories
- 3 branches of government
- catholic church still state religion

- first president was Guadelupe Victoria

What\'s with the political instability after the constitution is made?
Victoria is ousted, guerrero ousted, bustamante ousted, santa anna takes charge on and off for 22 years-- presidency changes hands 36 times between 1833-1855. the centralists vs. the federalists, noone can agree and instability continues.
Who was Santa Anna?
A liberal president who changes to being a conservative president who makes constitutions expending his term and making voting restricted to the wealthy. He is in charge during all the texas drama. lost his leg during the infamous pastry war.
What was going on in Texas?
texas was colonized by americans but then in 1835 they declare independence, santa anna leads army to go fight- but is captures. makes a deal saying he will respect texas\' independence. lasts from 1836-145.

in 1845 the u.s annexes texas back and there is a huge boundary disput, u.s says its at the rio grand, mexico says its at the river-- santa anna emerges and fights, but loses. in the treaty of guadelupe hidalgo the u.s gets all of texas and the california/arizona are. huge loss for mexico, and theres gold in cali.

What are the french doing in mexico during the new republic?
claims mexico owes france for eating pastries that weren\'t paid for- $600,000 mexico says no and they battle- mexico wins and santa anna loses a leg, no worries because he throws a ceremony in honor of it..
What happens to the conservative republic of mexico under santa anna?
Juarez, a liberal dude, steps in and calls for santa annas replacement with liberal reforms. he wants individual liberty, private property rights, and to limit the church while separating it from the state.
What is the war of reform of 1858-1861?
the liberal and conservative fight over power, santa anna was with the conservatives, juarex with the liberals. the liberals won and juarex became leader.
After the war of reform in 1861 what happens?
The conservatives turn to the french, they want a european monarch so the french send troops, but theres a mexican liberal victory (cinco de mayo). the french return with reinforcements and win! so Maximillian I becomes the 2nd emperor of mexico. Juarez and liberals look to the u.s for help and they oust Max.
What is everyday life like in the mexican republic during the 19th century?
- there\'s major inequality, the caste system is gone but inequality persists
- poor infrastructure, poor travel accomodations, late mail service, bad water supply, bandits, low population growth, high infant mortality rate, disease.
- ejidos (land registered since aztec rule, the encomienda system replaced it way back in colonial mexico) rural life included subsistence farming, wage work for haciendas, few churches and schools
- city life had marked inequalities, factory workers, schools for wealthy

what was modernization?
industrialization, technology, progress, better communication.

-the ideology of liberty and freedom are progressing with a focus on education and the arts.

- went from a time of transition to progress
- shift from family/community to the individual/nation
- liberal economic policies with foreign investments
- practical, industry, factories, technology. urbanization and education.

What were the foundations of modernization?
The restoration started with juarez in 1867-1872, there\'s economic growth, an import/export model, and railroads linked to mexico city and veracruz.
Who was Porfirio Diaz?
General in the Mexican Army, President from 1876-1910 and known as the porfiriato.

He modernized the economy with steam, water, electricity, telephone and a tram way

- also transportation, infrastructure, mining and industry, paid off debt to U.S

During modernization what was happening with agriculture and land?
agriculture modernization had more tools and machinery allowing surplus food being produced. monocropping was effective and easier and can produce on a large scale, this hurts the soil so fertilizer and stuff is needed which is pricey.

-land seizue and consolidation is happening, land loss happenign where people need papers to show they own the land. mostly everyone loses their land since they\'ve had it since the aztecs. they all have to move and start hacienda work whichh is wage labor as tenants. peasant revolts happen, indigenous communities are broken

What are the changes in modernizing mexico?
change in food production with technology, change in craft production, migration to cities and the U.S, urbanization (cities grow) and more industry
what is the push-pull migration theory?
push factors encourage people to get out like politics or religious persecution, pull factors encourage people to go there like family, education opportunities, peace. these factors are related to one another, push factors being hacienda owners, oppression by government and loss of land.
what is the world-systems theory of migration?
neocolonialism- foreign investors impact on mexico\'s economy. must understand relation to push-pull theory, economic ties and social relationships effects and impacts migration.
what is the transnationalism theory of migration?
emphasizes creation of relationships that expands to other nations, family based. what do people do when they need to leave, where do they stay, with who?- families
Where did internal migration in mexico occur?
most affected by southern mexico which was poor, and northern mexico which was industrialized. all rural people were left without land so they moved to cities, but when there\'s more workers than jobs- wages go down, over crowding, sanitation, conflict
what were the international migration policies?
Prior to 1882 U.S doors were wide open. but from 1882-1917 asians weren\'t allowed. mexican people had work based visas when the u.s needed mexican labor. between 1900-1910 100,000 mexicans migrated.
what kind of struggle was mexico facing prior to the 1910 revolution?
-loss of land by peasants, went to foreign investors and private owners, 9-10 million landless peasants
- mass poverty, crowded, unsanitary
- neocolonialism, foreign investment and privatizaion of land and subsoil
- emergent working class in poor conditions

what are working associations?
held by Nascent unions, workers unions. hundres of strikes between 1880-1910, wanted a minimum wage, 8 hr day, and end to child labor. also wanted diaz gone and end to porfiriato, land reforms and labor reforms.
What is the Mexican Revolution of 1910?
Diaz is reelected in 1920, revolutionary armies gather forces, so Madero becomes president but doesn\'t meet the peoples wants. The U.S supports Madero because they have foreign investors in mexican land and don\'t want the money to be gone. so there are 3 armies with three different plans:

army1:the constitutionalists- against huerta the new president, want to return to the constituion of 1857 by juarez, with individual liberties and private property rights.

army2: zapatistas, wanted land reforms and redistrubution, reject madero\'s policies-- leader was pascal orozzo.

army3: orozquistas, also led by pascal orozco, land reform with a labor reform too.

- the U.S supports constitutionalists, invasion and occupation.
-- the constitution of 1917 is made with labor reforms, nationalist reforms, limit of church power
- land is reconstructed and redistributed.

-1 million were killed in revolution

Was the revolution successful?
- although they fought for all this and got it all, problems still continue with labor struggles, migration, foreign investment and, land redistribution.
What happens after the revolution in 1917?
The depression kicks in and mexico feels it, but it accelerates the need of reform. land is finally refistributed, with social labor reforms, national protections- railroad and oil, import substituional industrialization laws so they are not dependent on imported foods and make food for themseleves, union rights are made, compensation laws etc.

The PRI instituted revolutionary reforms and is still in place today

When did the Mexican Miracle Occur and what is it?
The Mexican Miracle happened between 1940-1970 and is when impressive rates of economic growth happen, growth 6% per year. There was political stability with the PRI or the institutional revolutionary party. the economy grew because of social changes with population growth and urbanization. industry and agriculture grew as land distribution grew. urbanization happened, there was better health care, better education and a higher life expectancy. because there was no war the economy was doing well.
What were some of the downfalls of the mexican miracle?
- the promise of making mexico independent is never fully realized because of mexicos need to make foreign investments and importing goods.
- in 1976 the peso is floated and unions form
-there are protests including one set up where 300 students were killed before the olympics, and the government isn\'t helping-says only 36 died.

when were the major periods of migration from mexico to the u.s?
-during diaz\'s term in the 1880\'s-1900\'s there was migration because people were losing their jobs, losing land, losing wages. modernization is geared towards replacing human workers so economic growth usually means migration. 200,000 refugees at that point
- 1910-1930 a million mexicans migrated, there was no policy for border patrol and the u.s needed workers.

how did the depression in the u.s impact mexico?
the u.s went to mexican communities and kicked them out so the number of mexicans is dropped in half. and mexico feels the shock of the depression because of their economic relationship with the u.s- investors aren\'t investing because they can\'t afford it.
what was the bracero program?
1949-1964: workers from mexico get contracted to a specific employer for a certain wage, employer pays for them to come over, giving them food and a place to stay. there were 5 million braceros who were documented but an estimated 15 million undocumented braceros. weren\'t good conditions, and it undermined u.s workers and was ended in 1960\'s
what was operation wetback?
it happened in 1954 and was when large members of mexican workers were deported to remove illegal undocumented immigrants.
what is the new era in u.s immigration policy?
there is the hart-celler act which rids the national origin quota system as a civil rights movement so equal numbers of visas are available. but the number goes from unlimited visas and reduces to actual numbers over the years. previously there was no limit to mexican visas so this is a change for mexico, making it harder to migrate.

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