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WesterCiv People


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1694-1778, French, critic of government and church; poet
Spirit of the Laws (1743) doesn’t believe that absolute monarchy is the best way of government
The Social Contract (1762)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
leader of the physiocrats: talked about getting government out of the economy, against mercantilism believed in laissez-faire: government say out of economy.
Francois Quesnay
The Wealth of Nations (1776) really encouraged government to be out of the economy; like a supply-and-demand sort of economy.
Adam Smith
: believed that there was no God so no moral code outside of human life. People decide what values are and what is moral and ethical
King of France before Napoleon's rule; attempted property tax, this would be taxing the 2nd Estate because they own most of the property.
Louis XVI
leader of Jacobins; played major role in the Reign of Terror
saved the directory and becomes a hero; born in Corsica; was a lieutenant when revolution started in 1789; defeated a Royalist group in 1795 and became a general; in 1797-1799 wanted to take control of India and went through Egypt to do so, Britain cut o
Napoleon Bonaparte
Austria’s Prime Minister, wanted things to go back to how they were; conservatist.
came after Louis XVIII died; ruled like a monarch, 3 estates lost; 2 groups- nobility and industrialists, over took by Louis Phillipe
Charles X
prime minister of Italy; driving force, wanted to fight Austria
Count Cavour
King of Italy; constitutional monarchy
Victor Emmanuel II
prime minister of Prussia; wanted to get Austrian influence out of area but first declared war on Denmark with the help of Austria and they split Denmark
Otto Von Bismarck
King of Prussia
William I
he was a socialist and was against capitalist, thought workers should over throw owner, this would lead to a revolution and a classless society, lead to no need for government because everyone does/knows what’s right
Karl Marx
took over after Charles X
Louis Phillipe
nephew of Bonaparte; leader of Second French Empire
Napoleon III
Parsifal, The Ring of the Niebelungs (opera) pre-Christian tradition opera, played on anti-Semitic feelings.
Richard Wagner
ruler of the Russian government after Nicholas I, freed the serfs in 1861, opened the borders which improved relations with other European countries.
Alexander II
King Wilhelm of Germany; got rid of Bismarck and his treaties with France and Russia do not get renewed
William II
Essay on Population (1798), Malthus ratio: every 25 years the population would double and we will use up all our resources and cause starvation; lead to there being a concern for population control
Thomas Malthus
invented the Steamship
James Watt
dictator of Russia; leader of the Bolsheviks; Marxist
Vladamir Lenin
czar of Russia but the Russians wanted to end the war so they killed him out and got a new government
Czar Nicholas II
1912 organized the Fascist party (opposed communism): 1 party state, government runs media, no free elections, and secret police. In 1922 governs Italy and turns the economy around and reestablished Italy’s power.
Benito Mussolini
Austrian but lives in Germany, artist, fought in WW I, joined Nazis in 1919 and shortly becomes the ruler, blames all of Germanys problems on the Jews, gets arrested and write Mein Kampf while in jail, becomes chancellor in 1933, become president when cu
Adolf Hitler
Japan’s Prime Minister who has total control of military and starts taking over other countries, makes US mad so we stop economically supporting them, leads to attacks on Pearl Harbor.
Hideki Tojo
American General and commander of Allied Forces during WWII who retook the Philippines from the Japanese
prime minister of Britain during WWII
Winston Churchill
dictator after Lenin in Russia
Joseph Stalin
took office in 1933, implemented new economic plan to get out of the depression called the New Deal, Americans stuck with FDR instead of turning to communism and fascism
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Political analyst, advisor and diplomat, in charge of long-range planning for the State Department following World War II. He developed the concept of "containment" as a strategy to keep Soviet influence from expanding and maintain the status q
George Kennan
replaces Stalin as ruler of Soviet Union, knows that comminist is different than democracy but believes we should all still get along and exist together, ruled from 1956-1964
ruler of Cuba; 1959 Cuban Revolution, communist and ruler so Cuba is now a communist country, wealthy Cubans lost their land so they fled to the US, Cuba is now getting economic support from Soviet Union, we cut off Cuba and their goods
Fidel Castro
communist leader of China from 1943-1976, While in power, he collectivized industry and agriculture under the Great Leap Forward. Unfortunately, because of the Great Leap Forward, 20 million people starved to death. He forged, and later split, an allianc
Mao Zedong
chancellor for West Germany (noncommunist parts) from 1949-63, punished Nazis, gave pension to Jews, and poured money into rebuilding West Germany.
Konrad Adenaur
West German Chancellor after Adenauer, against Soviet/communist East Europe, was chancellor when Germany was reunified and put lots of money into it
Helmut Kohl
General who invented the Free French forces in WW II, then became president of France for short while, reestablished the Fifth Republic, resigned in 1969
Charles Degualle
Prime Minister of Britain from 1945-1951 right after Churchill
Clement Attlee
first women Prime Minister of Britain, severed as longest prime minister from 1979-1990 when you resigned
Margaret Thatcher
Soviet Union not happy with Khrushchev and how he dealt with the Cuban Missile Crisis so they replace him with Brezhnev in 1964
Leonid Brezhnev
ruler after Brezhnev, 1985, believed in reconstruction and openness, ruler until end of Soviet Union in 1991
Mikhail Gorbachev
ruler of Russia in 1990 who announced Russia’s limited independence, led to disbanding of Soviet Union.
Boris Yeltsin
Two Treaties of Civil Government; tabula roza- supporter of natural rights
John Locke
Leviathan; supporter of the Social Contract
Thomas Hobbes

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