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Ariel Sharon
Former Israeli Politician & General, Prime Minister, Likud Party then formed Kadima Party, strove to establish peace without sacrificing Israel's security, Defense Minister during Sabra and Shatilla
Black September
9/1/1970, King Hussein of Jordan stopped an attempt by Palestinian organizations to overthrow his monarchy. The attack resulted in heavy civilian Palestinian casualties. Armed conflict lasted until July 1971 with the expulsion of PLO and thousands of Palestinians to Lebanon.
Middle East Partnership Initiative
the Bush Administration's response to calls for change in the Middle East. helped put in place the building blocks for democratic change.
Sabra and Shatila
Camps where in September 1982 massacre of Palestinian refugees by Lebanese Maronite Christian militias occurred under the watch of Israeli soldiers. Significance is the strain it puts on Israeli-American relationships for us to look the other way.
Tanker Reflagging
Change the national flag a tanker is flying under to deceive another country's military. Operation Earnest Will: purpose to protect Kuwaiti and international shipping from Iranian naval attacks.
Menachem Begin
Prime minister of Israel in 1977, worked with President Carter and President Sadat of Egypt on Camp David Accords. Won a Nobel peace prize for implementation of "land for peace" policy.
USS New Jersey
One of the ships used to protect the United States' interests and the U.S. Marines during the Lebonese civil war in 1983. When shots were fired in support of the Lebonese army which signaled a shift in U.S. policy as they set up station outside Beirut.
Soft Power
Theory to describe the ability of a political body to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. Joseph Nye coined term and defines the resources of soft power as culture, values, and foreign policy, the effectiveness of which depend on the credibility of the country imposing soft power.
USS Liberty
A U.S. navy intelligence ship in international waters attacked by the Israeli fighter planes during the Six Day War. The official Israeli and CIA positions is that the attack was an accident in mistaken identity for an Egyptian ship. However, critics point out that the Liberty is almost impossible to mistake for the Egyptian ship and believed that the attack was premeditated. Showed the price of armed intervention, instigated some mistrust between Israel and the U.S.
October War
Also known as the Yom Kippur war, between Israel and Arab nations led by Syria and Egypt when they invaded the Sinai and Golan Heights captured by Israel in the Six Day War. The early victories in the October war by the Arab nations resulted in a peace process, liberalization of Egypt intifah policy. The Camp David Accords resulted from the normal relations between Egypt and Israel and also led to the recognition of the Israeli state by and Arab nation (Egypt).
Yom Kippur War
See October war
Tripartite Aggression
also known as the Suez Crises, a war on Egyptian Territory in 1956, Egypt's Nasser closed Suez Canal to Israel, France, and the UK which was an important economic and strategic asset, British, French, and Israeli troops retook the canal, UNEF was created to replace troops to prevent war, shifted global power from European powers to U.S. and the Soviet Union, showed weakness of NATO and led to French withdrawal from NATO, Gave Nasser prominence in Arab perspectives, hastened decolonization of British and French colonies, Egyptian replacement of UNEF forces led to the Six Day War.
Osama Bin Laden
Islamic Fundamentalist, primary founder of Al-Quaeda, considered a terrorist, behind 9-11 attacks, grievances against west include support for Israel, support for several dictoral regimes in ME, military bases in Saudi Arabia b/c of defilement of country where Islamic holy cities Mecca and Medina are located. Viewed as a hero in much of the Arab world and is for some Arabs a political entity to unite under.
Brent Scowcroft
National Security Advisor under Ford and George H. W. Bush, Military assistant to Nixon, Chairman of President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board under George W. Bush. Leading republican critic of Iraqi war, supported Afghanistan invasion as a direct response to terrorism. Quoted in Little as Bush's alter ego saying "to accommodate Iraq should not be a policy option"
Zbigniew Brzezinski
a polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, statesman, National Security Advisor to Carter, more favorable at that time towards armed intervention than most democrats, accomplishments in office include signing SALT II treaty, brokering Camp David Accords, emphasizing human rights in U.S. foreign policy, arming muhaddin in Afghanistan to counter soviet intervention, writer of The Choice: Global Domination or Global Leadership; a book about balancing America's power
Geneva Accord of 2003
unofficial peace proposal to resolve Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Would give Palestine almost all of Gaza strip and part of Jerusalem, returning Israeli border to before Six Day War, In return for Israeli withdrawal, Palestine would limit refugees returning to Israel. Israel rejected it outright (except for barely the Labour party) and Palestine acceptance is tentative and unenthusiastic. Much more awareness of the contents of Accords among Israel's population than Palestine's.
Ayatollah Khomeini
Iranian Supreme Leader after revolution (late 70's-late 80's), Islamic political theorist, viewed as a religious leader, created "guardianship of the jurisconsult" theory, wanted free market economy and theocratic Islamic society, against secular societies, primarily Western, wanted a self-reliant Iran, although helped establish a republican system in Iran, his Ideas of Islamic government are not thought to be conducive to a democratic society.
Richard Clarke
retired U.S. government official and expert in counter-terrorism. Provided national security advice under Reagan, G. H. W. Bush, Clinton, W. Bush, counter-terrorism advisor on NSC during 9/11. wrote book "Against All Enemies" which criticizes Bush administration for not being prepared for 9/11 and for 2003 Iraqi war. He originally believed that Saddam and Al-Quaeda had connections though later retracted that belief. Feels War in Iraq hampered efforts to stop terrorism and distracted from the real terrorists.
Anwar Sadat
Egyptian President 1970-1981, was assassinated by army members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, was a politician during Nasser's presidency and after succeeding Nasser, led Egypt to Six Day War, reopened the canal which shook Israeli military confidence leading to peace agreements with Menachem Begin under the Camp David Peace Agreement. Seen in Arab world as a betrayal to other Arab countries because it removed Egypt as a threat to Israel, causing Arab countries to loose leverage in negotiations over the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Yassir Arafat
Chairman of PLO (69-04) President of PNA (93-04). Negotiations in Oslo Accords with Peres and Rabin resulted in Nobel Peace Prize. Leader of the Fatah, recognized Israel in Oslo Accords, Seen by supporters as Freedom Fighter, by opponents as terrorist and promoting violence, by other Palestinians as weak minded and corrupt for giving in to Israel. Turned around and began Intifada Al-Aqsa, was then labeled by Bush and Israel as 'obstacle to peace' and Sharon confined him to Moqataa headquarters. Died Nov 11 2004, possibly assassinated and replaced by Abbas in Jan. 2005 elections, and then Hamas in 2006 elections who had opposing views to his Fatah party.
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of state under Eisenhower, took aggressive stance against communism. Criticized Truman's policy of containment, thought it should be replaced by liberation, built up NATO to combat soviet expansionism
Nixon Doctrine
Nixon made public in 1969, Doctrine said that countries were responsible for their own military defense. Argued for pursuit of peace through American allies. Said U.S. will provide a shield for allied countries or countries vital to U.S. security against nuclear attack. U.S. will provide military assistance only if asked. (Iran and Saudi Arabia). Opened the floodgates for U.S. military aid in the Persian Gulf and set the stage for the Carter Doctrine, and for U.S. involvement in Gulf and Iraq war.
Biggest Political Scandal in 1980's. Reagan administration sold arms to Iran and used proceeds to fund Right-wing Guerilla army in Nicaragua. Brought many questions in view such as Presidential authority in foreign policy over congressional laws, what information and when does the President have to provide to American people and Congress, how much support can America provide to armed opposition forces seeking to replace governments with ones more sympathetic to U.S.
Oliver North
Member of Marine Corps and Lieutenant General, rose to prominence over Iran-Contra (Irangate) affair because he was one of the key players, he became a scapegoat for the Reagan administration. Some support him regardless saying ends justify means, critics take opposing stance.
Carter Doctrine
Carter announced 1980, U.S. would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf. Was a response to 79 invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet Union. Brzezinski wrote part, making it clear that Soviet expansion into Afghanistan would be considered an infringement of U.S. interests concerning oil.
Refers to Nixon administration's abuse of power trying to undermine opposition to public anti-war movement and the Democratic Party. Scandal affected campaign financing, led to mass media being more aggressive in reporting on political figures, was a major factor in passing Freedom of Information Act.
Rafic Hariri
Prime Minister of Lebanon in mid-90s and again from 2000-2004, was assassinated in 2005 by Syrian officials, Hariri had extensive military and intelligence influence in Lebanon. Despite some corruption, Hariri brought about positive economic advances for Lebanon.
elite theory
sociological analysis of politics based on the social-conflict theory that sees power as concentrated among the wealthy. Mills coined the term "power elite" referring to upper class who theoretically control all three major sectors of U.S. society: economy, government, and military. Argues that power is so concentrated among "super rich" and top five government and military officials that the public are left without a voice or control, making democracy obsolete.
"intermestic" issues
Domestic affairs concerning the balance of power between the President and Congress. Affected by the misuse of power by former Presidents, legislation such as the War Powers Act, and lobbying to Congress by special interest groups.
Theory that in small group decision making many critical foreign policy decisions are made by neither an individual policy maker nor a bureaucratic force, and while this holds many advantages in an ideal world, the phenomenon of groupthink causes policy failures due to the presence of strong in-group pressures on members to concur with the group decision. The Iranian hostage rescue mission and Iran-contra are resulting policies of groupthink.
rational actor model
Policy making model based on an action-reaction process where foreign policy is viewed as a calculated response to the actions of another actor. The state is viewed as being unitary and rational. Domestic policies, governmental intricacies, and personalities are ignored. This is used when discussing Israel and soviet expansionism.
bureaucratic/governmental politics model
The process by which people inside the government bargain with one another on complex public policy questions, this method is time-consuming and expensive.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Second President of Egypt. Foremost exponent of Arab nationalism in 1950s and 60s and created ideology called Nasserism, one of the most important leaders in Arab history. Instigated the Suez crises, played Soviet and West off each other, and provoked the Six Day War.
preventive vs preemptive war
Preemptive war is when a state targets an enemy that represents an imminent threat of attack. An example is the Six Day War. Preventive war is when a state targets an enemy BEFORE they can become an imminent threat of attack. The attack on Pearl Harbor was an example of this. It is important because the war against Iraq was justified primarily as a pre-emptive war. But now the WMD are nowhere to be found.
Politically; The word came to symbolize the Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation. The word also stands for the weakness of the Palestinian people and their suffering under the Israeli occupation. The First Intifada began in 1987. Violence declined in 1991 and came to an end with the signing of the Oslo accords (August 1993) and the creation of the Palestinian National Authority. The al-Aqsa Intifada (also known as the Second Palestinian Intifada or the Second Intifada) was the violent Palestinian-Israeli conflict that began in September of 2000.
Shultz Peace Plan
Shultz traveled three times to the middle east in five months and came up with the plan containing the ideas: begin negotiations with all five major UN members and countries accepting UN resolutions 242 and 338 and renouncing violence and terrorism, The Palestinians would be represented by a joint Jordan-Palestinian delegation who would negotiate the terms of a three-year transitional period for the territories, The international meetings would facilitate separate bi-lateral negotiations for a final settlement, but have no veto or enforcement power. Election of Bush 1 ended plan But, by stating the conditions under which the US would begin to deal directly with the PLO, Schultz had caused a debate within the PLO. In November 1988 the PLO announced publically (the Algiers Declaration) that they would take the minimal steps needed to fulfill US preconditions for holding meetings with it. Arafat finally recognized the importance of the US as a regional power broker, but he also overestimated the ability of the US to bring Israel to the table to impose a settlement.
a water nuclear materials testing reactor in Iraq, crippled by Israeli forces in 1981 in a preemptive strike against Saddam Hussein to prevent him from using the reactor to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, was completely destroyed by American aircraft in the Gulf War in 1991.
Operation Blue Bat
1958, Result of turmoil caused by Lebonese crises. Assistance by U.S. forces under eisenhower to the Pro-Western Lebanese Government under President Chamoun because of internal opposition and threats from Syria and the UAR. The presence of the Marines quelled opposition and U.S. withdrew troops.
Baghdad Pact
also known as the Middle East Treaty Organization, adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, Iran, and the UK. The pact committed the nations to mutual cooperation and protection, as well as non-intervention in each other's affairs. Its goal was to contain the Soviet Union by having a line of strong states along the USSR's southwestern frontier. Was ineffective when Iraq dropped, the Soviet Union "leap-frogged" over the states meant to contain it, and Iran's revolution ended the organization in 1979, future U.S. and British agreements were conducted bilaterally.
Operation Peace for Galilee
In 1982 Israel defense forces invaded Lebanon. The government of Israel justified the invasion as a response to the Abu Nidal organization's assassination attempt against Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov and to artillery attacks launched by the Palestine Liberation Organization against populated areas in northern Israel. PLO fought back and bargained with Israel to allow leaders to leave if they would not invade Beirut. After leaders left Israel invaded and Shatila and Sabra massacres occurred.
Dr. Condoleezza Rice
U.S. Secretary of State, replaced Collin Powell in 2005, was Bush's NSA during first term, oppenents to said Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Hussein's regime with Islamist terrorism and some could not accept her previous record. Goals include the relocation of hundreds of American diplomats, as well as strengthening requirements for language skills and knowledge of foreign cultures as a prerequisite for professional advancement. Dr. Rice has given this new initiative the name "Transformational Diplomacy."
Oslo Accords
1993-created the Palestinian Authority and granted it partial control over parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank. Abbas signed for PLO and Peres for Israel. Clinton, Rabin, and Arafat were also present. The Oslo Accords were a culmination of a series of secret and public agreements, dating particularly from the Madrid Conference of 1991 onwards, and negotiated between the Israeli government and the Palestine Liberation Organization (acting as representatives of the Palestinian people) in 1993 as part of a peace process trying to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Despite high hopes, the conflict has not been resolved.
Mearsheimer and Walt
Authors of controversial working paper claiming U.S. Middle East policy is not in America's national interest and is driven primarily by "Israel Lobby", a "loose coalition of individuals and organizations who actively work to steer US foreign policy in a pro-Israel direction.
Foundation for the Future
The Foundation For the Future was established with the mission to increase and diffuse knowledge concerning the long-term future of humanity. The Foundation conducts a broad range of programs and activities to promote an understanding of the factors in the social, genetic, biological, medical, psychological, physiological, cultural, technological, and ecological fields that may have an impact on human life during coming millennia.
dual containment
Combining economic sanctions and military actions, used by the U.S. to help undermine Iraq and Iran and to get back control over oil resources. Failed because it does not respect the principle of power balancing.
Desert Shield.
called for the pentagon to deploy over 200,000 U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia within 90 days to protect from an attack by Iraq. King Fhad agreed only after seeing the extent of Saddam's Army.
Desert Storm
Air campaign launched by the coalition against Saddam's Iraq from Saudi Arabia to protect Kuwait from Iraqi invasion. The success of the U.S. air strikes helped "kick the Vietnam syndrome" and prevented Saddam from using Kuwait as a strategic base.
Ehud Barak
10th Prime Minister of Israel, 1999-2001, He withdrew from South Lebanon and began peace negotiations with Syria, attended and tried to make the Camp David Accords a success, blamed failure on Arafat, the Intifada also occurred during his political career.
Saddam Hussein
President of Iraq 1979-2003, was overthrown by American troops invading Baghdad. Ran an authoritative government, gained power during Iran-Iraq war, repressed threatening ethnic or religious movements, ran a secular government against complaints of Islamic conservatives, attempts at modernizing Iraq were impeded by domestic conflicts, Led opposition to Camp David Accords. Saddam increasingly portrayed himself as a devout Muslim, in an effort to co-opt the conservative religious segments of society. Some elements of Sharia law were re-introduced.
Tony Blair
Prime minister of UK, Maintains special relationship with Bush and the U.S., supported war in Iraq.
Quartet on the Middle East
foursome of nations and international and supranational entities involved in mediating the peace process between the State of Israel and the Palestinian National Authority. James wolfensohn is the Quartet's Special Envoy for Israel's disengagement from Gaza, the four major players are: U.S., U.N., Russian Federation, EU
Reagan Doctrine
Cold War strategy by U.S. to contain Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. Advantages were the relatively low cost of supporting guerilla forces compared to the Soviet Union's expenses in propping up client states, and the lack of direct involvement of American troops. Drawbacks included the sometimes fickle support afforded by Congress in appropriating funds for anti-communist groups, especially in the case of the contras.
Downing Street Memo
contains an overview of a secret 23 July 2002 meeting among United Kingdom Labour government, defence and intelligence figures, discussing the build-up to the war—including direct reference to classified United States policy of the time. Also called the smoking gun memo.
An Israel city in the Negev Desert, Development town created by David Ben-Gurion, Became the site of Israel's Nuclear Reactor and the source of much controversy concerning non-proliferation policies of the U.S. The creation of nuclear weapons was kept secret and denied for a time by Israel until forced to reveal their existence.
Paul ("Jerry") Bremer
Director of Reconstruction and Humanitarian assistance for post-war Iraq. Bremer violated UN Security Council resolution 1483, under which he was accountable to the International Advisory and Monitoring Board for his expenditures of Iraqi resources.
a Palestinian Islamist organization, calls for the destruction of the State of Israel as well as any secular Palestinian state, and replacement with an Islamic state based on Sharia won out in 2006 elections and is now the majority party of the Palestinian Authority Legislative Council. Hamas is known chiefly for its suicide bombings and other attacks directed against Israeli civilians, as well as military targets, to further its goal of creating a Palestinian Islamist state in the area that is now Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. Its popularity among Palestinians is in part explained by the extensive network of welfare programs it has set up throughout the West Bank and Gaza Strip. According to the U.S. State Dept, Hamas is funded by Iran, Palestinian expatriates, and private benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other Arab states. It is listed as a terrorist organization by Australia, Canada, the European Union, Israel, and the United States, and is banned in Jordan. The U.S. and allies announced that future aid to the Palestinians would be tied to three principles: that Hamas renounce violence, that it recognize Israel's right to exist, and that it express clear support for the Middle East peace process, as outlined in the Oslo Accords. Hamas leaders have rejected these demands as "unfair".
Yitzhak Rabin
5th Prime Minister of Israel from 74-77 and from 92 until his assassination in 95 by a right-wing activist who had strenuously opposed Rabin's signing of the Oslo Accords. He is remembered by most as Israel's great man of peace, despite his military career. After his untimely death, Rabin was turned into a national symbol, especially for the Israeli left. Rabin played a leading role in the signing of the Oslo Accords.
Jonathan Jay Pollard
ormer civilian intelligence analyst who pled guilty and was convicted on one count of spying for Israel. Exactly what information he gave to Israel has still not been officially revealed, but we know his work included obtaining and copying the latest version of Radio-Signal Notations, a 10-volume manual detailing America's global electronic surveillance network.
Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Founded in 1985 by former AIPAC research director, was established to advance an understanding of American policy in the M.E., promotes American engagement in M.E. including strengthening alliances and promoting peace and prosperity. Funded by U.S. Jewish community to conduct research on matters related to Israel's National Security and contribute to political debate.
Ahmed Chalabi
Prime Minister in Iraq who was once the "George Bush of Iraq" and is now under investigation by U.S. On council for INC, Controversal because provided information on WMD and other issues that turned out to be false.
"iron triangle"
refers to relationships in U.S. politics between legislature, government bureaucracies, and constituencies which results in tight policy making circles. bureaucratic agencies seek to create and consolidate their own power base, which is dependent on constituencies which provide (through organizations like AIPAC) lobbying for legislation.
War Powers Act
An Act to define, regulate, and punish trading with the enemy, and for other purposes, excluding citizens. It only applies during times of declared war, having originally also applied during any time of national emergency.
Camp David Summit (Carter)
established an autonomous self-governing authority in the West Bank and the Gaza strip, declared principles that should apply to relations between Israel and all of its Arab neighbors, and outlined a basis for the peace treaty 6 months later, in particular deciding the future of the Sinai peninsula. Israel agreed to withdraw its armed forces from the Sinai and restore it to Egypt in return for normal diplomatic relations with Egypt, guarantees of freedom of passage through the Suez Canal and other nearby waterways. the U.S. also committed to several billion dollars worth of annual subsidies.
Straits of Tiran
narrow sea passages, formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. Access to Israel's seaport of Eilat and Jordan's only seaport of Aqaba is contingent upon passage through the Gulf of Aqaba, giving the Straits of Tiran strategic importance.
Hans Blix
Swedish ex-Minister for Foreign Affairs who was head of the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission during the search for WMD in Iraq. Contradicted Bush Administration's claims to WMD presence, and criticized them for using the existence of WMDs as a way to strengthen reasoning behind war in Iraq.
American Israel Public Affairs Committee
AIPAC is a special interest group that lobbies the U.S. on behalf of a strong U.S.- Israeli relationship. Describing itself as "America's Pro-Israel Lobby," it is a mass-membership organization including both Jews and non-Jews, and is considered one of the most powerful political lobbies in the United States.
UN Security Council Resolution 242
unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. It calls for the "withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict" and the "[termination of all claims or states of belligerency". It also calls for the recognition of all established states by belligerent parties (Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan) of each other and calls for the establishment of defensible boundaries for all parties.
International Atomic Energy Agency: promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. Headed in Vienna, Austria, envisioned by Eisenhower as an international body to control and develop the use of atomic energy.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
President of Islamic Republic of Iran (began 2005),, a religious conservative with Islamist and populist views.
UN Security Council Resolution 194
1948, calls for conditional return of refugees, protection and free access to the Holy Places, demilitarization and UN control over Jerusalem, free access to Jerusalem
United States Information Agency (USIA)
1953-1999, devoted to "public diplomacy, i.e.: propaganda. It's goals were: increased understanding and acceptance of US policies and US society by foreign audiences, broadened dialogue between Americans and US institutions and their counterparts overseas, Increased US Government knowledge and understanding of foreign attitudes and their implications for US foreign policy.
Tal Afar
City in Northern Iraq, used as a staging point for attacks by insurgents after U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003, Insurgents defeated by American forces in 2004, but after most of forces withdrew, city again began to fall to insurgents, America again took control, and Tal Afar is now rebuilding, was also the site of much sectarian violence between Shiites and Sunni Muslims.
George Tenet
Former CIA Director, resigned in 2004 for "personal" reasons. Before 9/11 was aware of growing terrorist threats and although presented an anti-terrorism campaign, he was still unable to prevent 9/11. Assured Bush of existence of WMDs in Iraq, and failure to find weapons became a source of embarrassment for Tenet and CIA.
John Whitaker "Jack" Straw
British Labour Party politician who presented policy change for increased police powers against terrorism and reduced the right of a trial by jury, was an early supporter for the War Against Terror, but has trouble backing his theory
Arms Export Control Act
provides the authority to control the export of defense articles and services, and charges the President to exercise this authority, instrumental in Iran-contra affair
Seymour M Hersh
Author who reported on U.S. military mistreatment of detainees in Abu Ghraib prison, also reported on US's military plans for Iran which include using nuclear weapons
Jacques Chirac
President of French Republic, stands for strong punishment of crime and terrorism, is a leading voice against Bush's administration's conduct towards Iraq, doesn't think there is evidence to go to war with Iraq
National Security Council
an executive body which coordinates national security issues and typically includes the heads of departments involved in diplomacy and defense with a small staff, Is the principle forum used by the President to consider national security and foreign policy matters with cabinet. Truman started it to help advise the President on national security and foreign policy. Is also the principle arm for coordinating policies.
Golan Heights
Plateau on border of Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria, was captured by Israel during Six Day War, is under Israel occupation, and the source of much international controversy as to who should be ruling the region
King Hussein
King of Jordan from 1952-1999, while provided western sanctuary and seen as a protectorate for Middle Eastern countries during most of his reign, King Hussein was responsible for Black September and sided with Saddam during the Gulf War (apparently for internal reasons to protect his throne). He did, however, make a peace treaty with Israel, and warned Israel about the October war.
J William Fulbright
Democratic Senator supporting multilateralism and the creation of the UN. Was an outspoken critic of pro-Israel community in America.
Mordechai Vanunu
an Israeli former nuclear technician who revealed details of Israel's nuclear weapons program to the British press in 1986. Abducted, smuggled, and tried for treason in Israel, spent 18 years in jail and is now restricted in his movements.
Intelligence Oversight Act
requires US government agencies to report more detailed covert actions to congress, but in return only have to tell two oversight committees instead of the whole congress.
Mahmoud Abbas
elected president of PNA in 2005, leading politician in Fatah, with Hamas in control of Palestinian government, he is viewed as face of Palestinian moderation.
Shimon Peres
Prime minister in Israel from 84-86 and 95-96 and Foreign Affairs Minister of Israel 2001-2002, and became Vice Premier in a coalition under Sharon in 2005. Peres, Rabin, and Arafat won Nobel Peace Prize for peace efforts leading to Oslo accords. Recently left Labor party and declared support for Sharon's Kadima party.
Henry Kissinger
NSA under Nixon and then Secretary of State when Ford moved up. In 1973 negotiated end to Yom Kippur War by pressuring Israelis to cede lands to Arabs. Led to warmer reception of West by Egypt and the Camp David Accords.
Power Float
Hedrick Smith's theory of fluid power system in US. Describes how shift in power is more complex then just President vs. Congress. The wealthy political organizations bridge the gap between the Executive branch and the Legislative branch by lobbying and having influence on economic politics. Often the Executive and Legislative Branches must share power as an induced dipole.
Colin Powell
Secretary of State under George W. Bush, controversial actions in the War on Terrorism due to building causes for war in Iraq, was however instrumental in convincing Bush administration to take invasion of Iraq to UN first, didn't want to originally invade Iraq and overthrow Saddam, but gave into pressure, wanted a more multilateral approach, gave speech to UN to convince them to support the war, speech contained false information about WMDs, resigned in 2004, thought of as a moderator in Bush Administration, but had low foreign credibility
Benjamin Netanyahu
Likud Party, Prime Minister of Israel between Peres and Barak, became Finance Minister of Israel where he pushed for liberalized markets and banking reform to restore economy until 2005 when he resigned in protest of Gaza Disengagement Policy advocated by Prime Minister Sharon, retook Likud Leadership in 2005
Truman Doctrine
US political response to communist movements in Iran, Turkey, and Greece. Shifted American foreign policy towards USSR, offered US economic assistance, equipment, or military force to countries threatened by soviet, i.e.: countries resisting communism, filled vacuum from British withdrawal.
Agency for International Development (AID)
US government agency responsible for most foreign non-military aid. Supports health, economic growth, agriculture and trade, democracy, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance. Instrumental in the rebuilding of Iraq.
Gen Schwartzkopf
commander of coalition forces in Gulf War in 1991, prepared a detailed plan for the defense of oil fields of Persian Gulf against a hypothetical invasion by Iraq. Plan was basis for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, dubbed "Stormin Normin" and was the first American made honorary private first class in French Foreign Legion
Dubai Port Deal
Deal to make state-owned Dubai company manager of home ports. Bush supports it and says there are homeland security safeguards, congress is against it
Madrid Conference
early attempt by Spain, US, and USSR to start peace negotiations between Israel and Arab countries (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine). Secretary of State James Baker, with USSR, formulated plans and invited representatives from the west bank and Gaza to represent the Arab countries instead of PLO. However, reps had contact with PLO. Attempted to begin negotiations on both bilateral tracks and on multilateral tracks that also involved the international community. The Syrian and Lebanese negotiators agreed on a common strategy. Israel refused to talk about economic and refugee part of bilateral negotiations with Palestinians from outside West Bank and Gaza, Lebanon and Syria refused to talk multilaterally until the bilateral negotiations were completed. Palestine had to work in 2 stages, first on its interim self government, and then on more permanent status negotiations. In multilateral negotiations, 5 forums put focus on issues of water, economic development, environment, arms control, refugees, nothing came of Madrid, but led to Oslo
Hosni Mubarak
Egyptian President after Sadat in 1981 until currently, exercises strong control over country, against war on Iraq, saying Palestinian-Israeli conflict should be tackled first, domestically has given Christians more rights.
Wye River Memorandum
political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995. US brokered it between Israel and Palestine, was completed 1998, signed by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and PLO Chairman Yassir Arafat, and Bill Clinton, still not implemented due to Intifada and other instabilities.
Donald Rumsfeld
US Secretary of Defense, criticized for war crimes in Abu Ghraib by Economist among others, sued for torture and abuse by US military of detainees. Perceived as using inadequate troop strength in invasion of Iraq, was an obstacle to CIA in using missiles against terrorists, many calls for his resignation, he claims he has submitted it several times.
Mohammed Khatami
President of Iran from 97-05, succeeded by Ahmadinejad, moved Iran from confrontation to conciliation, started expanding relations with the world, but US relations marred by mutual suspicion and distrust,
Madeleine Albright
Secretary of State under Clinton, coined NATO's three "D's": no Decoupling of US from NATO, no discrimination against NATO allies, and no duplication of efforts or resources. Some now say that non-proliferation movement against Iran is in violation of the second D.
Tower Commission
investigated Iran-contra affair, found Reagan to have been involved though he escaped scandal.
James A Baker
Brought together Israel and Arab countries for Madrid conference by making many trips overseas and through many face-to-face negotiations, drafted to assist in US-led occupation of Iraq
Paul D Wolfowitz
Architect of the Bush Doctrine, seen as neoconservatist and proponent of 2003 Iraq war, current president of the World Bank.
General Anthony Zinni
retired marine general selected to be a special envoy to Israel and Palestine Authority, public critic of Bush administration and did not support the decision to go to war in Iraq
Axis of Evil
used by W Bush to describe regimes that sponser terror, namely Iraq, Iran, and North Korea.
Al Aqsa Intifada
a wave of violence in 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis, Many Palestinians consider the intifada to be a war of national liberation against foreign occupation, whereas many Israelis consider it to be a terrorist campaign.

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