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Islamic Civ Final Study Guide


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Abü Abd Alläh al:Näsir (r. 1199-1213)
Marked the moment of Almohad power failure. He fought the Christians in 1212. There was much factionalism as well.
Hasan-i Sabbah
Isma'ili Iranian who started a movement of assassinating Saljuq officials because of their hostility towards the Fatimids.
Aghlabid governors (800-909)
when governors in Baghdad and Damascus couldn't control the Maghreb.
Tariq ibn Ziyad
invited by Roderic to help protect his empire (711) and decided to take it himself with Musa ibn Nusayr.
Al-Shafi'i (d. 820)
Al-Shafi'i was controversial in his own time but, as history has shown, he won his point. Starting from the Maliki position of reliance (largely) upon tradition in legal matters he came into contact with and opposed the Hanafi position of reliance (largely) upon common sense. He reached the conclusion that tradition was indeed the proper basis for legal decisions, but only if that tradition was based upon the prophet and no one else. The Hanafis, of course, were not willing to exchange all their common sense for hadiths and the Maliki's were not willing to give up traditions just because they had no prophetic hadiths supporting them. As time went by, however, both the Hanafis and Malikis have grown to conform to Shafi'i's idea that only prophetic hadiths matter. The fourth school of fiqh came later.
Nizam al:Mulk
He was wazir during the expansion. He actually ruled during Alp Arslan's rule.
Ceuta (Sabta)
agreement, pleasure (with)
Ifriqiya (Provincia Africa)
Mas'ud (1030 - 1040)
Also expanded the empire in all directions. Lost battle to the Saljuqs commanded by Chaghri and Tughril (Turks) and thus had to grant them some power in the north.
Al-Afdal b. Badr (1094 - 1121)
also known as Al-Afdal Shahanshah, he was a vizier under the Fatimids from 1066-1121. He was the son of Badr al-Jamali.
social religious movement in W. Sahara. Berber tribe. Dominated trade in S.W. Maghreb in the early 11th century. These routes were being threatened by Ghanese tribes in South and others in the North.
Dandanqan (battle, 1040)
The Saljuqs take land in N. Khurasan from the Ghaznavids. This opened the gate up to Turkish tribesmen who continued to migrate for over a century.
Al- Bukhari, Sahih
collection of sound hadiths
designation of next imam by predecessor
Malik Shah (1072 - 1092)
One of the two successors of Tughril Beg. His nephew. Empire expanded under him. Saljuks actually become a state when they were not before.
an early school of Islamic law- Sunni. Advocated "suspended judgement"
Bulkin Ibn Ziri
was the first ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya (972-984). Buluggin was already given responsibility under the governorship of his father Ziri ibn Manad, during which time he founded the cities of Algiers, Miliana and Médéa. After Ziri's death in battle against renegade Berbers, Buluggin became governor of Algeria and defeated the Zanata tribe. The prisoners were resettled in great numbers in the settlement of Ashir.
Al-Mawardi (d. 1058)
an Arab[citation needed] Muslim jurist of the Shafii school; he also made contributions to Qur'anic interpretations, philology, ethics, and literature. He served as judge at several Iraqi districts, including Baghdad, and as an ambassador of the Abbasid caliph to several Muslim states. Al-Mawardi's works on Islamic governance are recognized as classics in the field.
Oghuz (Oguz, Ghuzz)
A Turkish tribe that remained in the area north of Transoxiana between the 7th and 11th centuries.
Muhammad b. Tumart (r. 1118-1130)
First Almohad ruler. went to study in Al:Andalus and the east and wanted to reform Islam. He felt obliged to make everyone practice Islam correctly. Stressed Unitarianism. Believed that the only places to find law were in the Qur'an, Hadith, and Sunna. He made sure that the Berbers had access to Islam. Moved to Timal. Establishes a confederacy and proclaims himself as Mahdi in 1122. Believed that it was the duty of Muslims to follow him and establish truth and justice. There was apocalyptic sentiment.
Jawhar :
Manzikert (battle, 1071)
Opened up Turkish migration over Anatolia with a defeated Byzantine empire..
Mahmud (998 - 1030)
inherited rule of Ghaznavid empire and became famous for his wide:ranging military campaigns. He made at least 17 major raids into India for treasure, striking as far south as Gujarat, plundering and destroying Hindu temples. Sunni. Patron of the arts and sciences. When the Samanids collapse, their land is divided between Ghaznavids and Qarakhanids.
Abdalläh b. Yasïn (r. 1042:1059)
Almoravid. Yauya granted him full power. Led rigorous campaigns against anti-spread-Islam. Berbers. He tried to introduce Malaki Islam. He lived in rabat. He emerged in 1042. Wore a veil.
« Assassins » (hashshashiyum)
Isma'ili group who killed Saljuq officials in defense of Fatimid/Iranian cultural norms.
practical, spread under merchants. Established Island in W. Africa then the caravan trade.
"coming together", esp in ra'y (opinion; collective agreement)
Abu Hanifa (d. 767) Kufa
this is the school of law that is seen as the main proponent of personal opinion and reasoning (ra'y).
keeps books about the qanat. He records all information related to it.
They were Sunni. The power of this dynasty was not long lived. They were fought and defeated by the Fatimids. However, the Idrisids may have greatly influenced Moroccan policy.
Effectively ruled Tunisia and eastern Algeria. They started by being the leaders of a Sanhaja tribal caste, holding power in the name of the Fatimids; but with the passage of time, they became Arabized and viewed themselves, much as the Aghlabids has done, as the local ruling dynasty of Ifriqiya. Unlike the Fatimid caliphs, they did not reside in Mahdiyya, but in Sara al:Mansuriyya, immediately outside of the walls of Qayrawan and were constantly in contact with this main center of Ifriqiya's Sunnite religio:political culture. Malikite School of law. Late 10th early 11th centuries.
Romanus Diogenes
Byzantime emperor during the time of Saljuqs. He tried to defeat the Saljuqs, but with his factious army, he lost half of his soldiers to desertion and was crushed at the battle of Manzikert.
a Saljuq establishment which remain very important. Study with male bonding, schools set up, formal Islam study.
Zarafshan river
Al-Ghazali (d. 1111)
Islamic theologian, jurist, and philosopher.
one of the four sources of law. It included what the prophet said, did, or his tacit approval of something that was said and done in front of him.
Alfonso VI of Leon & Castilla
e was very open to Arabic influence. He protected the Muslims among his subjects and struck coins with inscriptions in Arabic letters. He also admitted to his court and to his bed the refugee Muslim princess Zaida of Seville. Alfonso was defeated on October 23, 1086, at the battle of Sagrajas, at the hands of Yusuf ibn Tashfin, and Abbad III al-Mu'tamid.
Al-Hakim (996 - 1021)
sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996-1021). Born in 985, Abu 'Ali "Mansur" succeeded his father Abū Mansūr Nizār al-Azīz(975-996) at the age of eleven on 14, October, 996 with the caliphal title of al-Hakim Bi-Amr Allah. Also Al-Hakim is a central figure in the Druze religious sect
Santiago de Compostela
The tomb in the northwest of Andalusian peninsula identified as that of St. James. This gave the Christian kingdoms to the north even more strength. It became the third greates object of Chirstian pilgrimage during the middle ages and because of the increase in pilgrimage, the Christians gained wealth.
Muluk al:tawa'if/reyes de taifas/Party Kings
After the fall of the Umayyads in Andalus, Andalus divided up into over three dozen city:states, the leaders of which were called Party Kings because they were the instruments of one interest group or another. They became subject to Christian kings in the north who were gaining increasing power in the region.
horizontal wheel geared towards vertical things which scoop up water and then transfer it to a basin which disseminates the water. Requires an ox.
'Uqaylids (Mosul, Aleppo)
a Muslim dynasty in what today is Iraq and Syria. They ruled several cities between 990 and 1096. A Muslim (Arabic: Ù...سلÙ..., Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: Ù...سلÙ...ان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Uqaylids descended from the Bedouins. In 990, Uqaylid Arabs took Mosul from the Buyids. They took hold of Jazira and Balad around 992, and of Tikrit in 1036.
Abu Yusuf (d. 798)
He was appointed Qadi (judge) in Baghdad, Iraq, and later chief justice (qadi al-qudat) under Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (r.786-809) with authority to appoint judges in the empire. Some of his opinions differ from those of Abu Hanifah, probably on the basis of traditions not available to the earlier scholar.
consensus of legal scholars as a method of defining law: Not all schools agree on its validity.
Al-Qa'im (934 - 946)
Ibn Tufayl/Abbubacer (d. 1185)
.personal physician toAbu Ya'qub. He was a philosopher and convinced ibn Rushd to write commentaries about Aristotle.
Yahya b. Ibrähïm (d. 1042)
seen as the leader of the Sanhaja tribe. On haaj to Mecca, he decided to introduce religious from in his coferderation.As he came back he brought Abdallah b. Yasin (Malaki Scholar).
base of the Almoravid movement
Mu'tazila, Mu'tazilites
Muslim scholars who were influenced by Greek philosophy and asserted that the human mind is capable of determining which acts are good and which are bad.
Musa ibn Nusayr
Initiated the conquest of Spain by the Muslims. He was the amir of Ifriqiya.
Abü Yaqüb b. Yüsuf (r. 1163-1184)
3rd Almohad Ruler. He unified much of Al:Andalus but the Christians were still in Spain and there was thus a much smaller Muslim regime.
missionary propaganda by the Isma'ili
Druzid movement derives its name from an Isma'ili missionary, al-Darazi (d.1019/20), who proclaimed the divinity of the sixth Fatimid caliph, Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021). The principal figure, however, behind the formation of the movement's beliefs was Hamzah ibn 'Ali (d. 1021) who not only taught the divinity of al-Hakim but claimed that he himself was the cosmic intellect.
Al-Mu'izz (953 - 975)
Alfonso VI
The king of Castile Took over Muslim Toledo. He was defeated by ibn Tashfin in 1086.
Punjab ("5 Waters", N. Pakistan)
Banu Hilal
a Bedouin tribe that moved westward from the Nile river valley around the time that the Zirids claimed allegiance to the Abbasids in a Fatimid region. Moved all the way to Ifriqiya where they harassed the Zirids during the 1050s forcing the ruling family to abandon Qayrawan and move to the better-fortified city of Mahdiyya.
faqïh pl.fuqahä
legist(s)/jurisprudent(s) : gained a lot of power during the reign of Ali b. Tashfin. They limited the power of the qadis and gave more influence to jurists. Maliki law was circulated. This was problematic.
Ibn Abi
Umayyad. Served as aid to the boy:leader Hisham II. He usurped his power. Having succeeded with the support of the general Ghalib in having himself appointed chamberlain, this Arab chief emerged gradually as a dictator who usurped the caliph
Companions of prophet
Amir al:mu'minin
"commander of Believers"
Qanat / kariz canal; "horizontal well"
You tap into the water table higher up and there have the water flow horizontally in a horizontally dug well. Found in Syria, Iran, N. Africa, and Yemen. Can be up to 20 miles long.
began as a puritanical movement. Hanafi law. Accused the Almoravids of not abiding by the Qur'an. Originally just counter Almoravid, but then counter Kharajites and Berbers. There were three great metropolises (Marrakesh, Fez, and Tunis). Great walls were built. There was expansive trade.
Ibrahim Yinal
İbrahim commanded a successful raid against the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire which culminated in the Battle of Kapetrou in September 1048. The Arab chronicler Ibn al-Athir reports that he brought back 100,000 captives and a vast booty loaded on the backs of ten thousand camels.[1] In 1058, he revolted against his brother, but was eventually defeated and personally strangled by Toğrül with his bowstring at Baghdad
Abü Yüsuf b. Yaqüb (r. 1184-1199)
Almohad. He transferred the capital from Marrakesh to Seville. Seville flourished and there were many large building projects. Also presided over a period of philosophy and scholarship. A lot of people began to combine philosophy and religion. Mysticism becomes very important.
cursing of political enemies
Idris ibn Abd Allah
relation of Ali. He went to Fakhkh. He started the Idrisid dynasty and founded the city of Fez.
Frankish dynasty. Ruled from 5th to 9th century.
Umm walad
a slave mother to her masters child. an improvement in her status as she can no longer be sold.
Mzab (Ar. Mus'ab)
puritanical communities in the desert where Ibadis would live
sedentary branch of the Sanhaja branch of the Berbers. Divided into feuding clans and village communities each having an elders' council (jama'a) to manage its own affairs, the Kutama had not developed a centralized authority before Abu 'Abdulla's appearance amonst them. They were also not controlled by the Aghlabids. Converted to Isama'ili Islam by Abu 'Abdulla. In late 9th and early 10th centuries.
Area that the Ghaznavids were granted control of after helping a Samanid ruler repel foreign invasion of a different Turkish tribe.
living together term that reflects the fact that Muslim, Christinan, and Jewish communities lived together in Islamic Spain.
deliverer at End of Time
after 1031. Annual tribute exacted by the Christians in the north who invaded into Al:Andulus. This gave Christian kings more strength and weakened Muslim rulers.
elective council
Qarakhanids (Ilel Khans)
Qarluq Turks. They converted en masse to Islam about 960. In 992 they seized Bukhara from the Samanids and seven years later they took Samarqand. Their unity fractured within a decade and rival rulers assumed control of Bukhara and Samarqand. Originally ruled over a largely Iranian population but there was much Turkish migration as well. They refused to accept the power of the Abbasids. Nomadic to urban.
Marwanids (Diyarbakr)
The founder of the dynasty was a Kurdish shepherd, Abu Shuja Badh bin Dustak. He left his cattle, took up arms and became a valiant chief of war, obtaining celebrity. When a member of the Iranian dynasty of Buyid, Adud al Dawla, who ruled the Islamic empire, died in 983, Badh took Mayyafarikin, a city of the North-Eastern Diyarbakır. Formerly it was Martyropolis, and nowadays it calls Silvan. He took Akhlat and Nisibis, too.
a garrison town in Ifriqiya, from where radiated the two different forms of Islam (Sunni and Kharajism) present at the time. Center of the Aghlabid Dynasty and later the Zirids, who were forced to move to Mahdiyya after being harassed by the Banu Hilal Bedouin tribe.
Turkish (Saljuq) raiding into Anatolia
Qiyas analogy
method of law, not source. Reasoning by anaology or analogical deduction. One of the most important methods of formulating legal ruling.
They had been only lightly Islamized by the early 11th century but one of their cheidtains returned from the pilgrimage to Mecca about the earlr 1035 with a young religious teacher. Imposed strict religious and moral discipline upon his followers and began to implement the Maliki law code in their affairs. Thus a tendency towards legalism developed. Eventually became the Almoravids.
Alp Arslan (1063 - 1072)
One of the two successors of Tughril Beg. His nephew. Empire expanded under him. Saljuks actually become a state when they were not before.
spiritual power that inhered in the saint in death as in life. Sufi.
divinely-guided leader of Shi'a :
Abu 'Abd Allah al-Shi'i
A da'i or missionary that helped 'Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi come to power in Tunisia, was later killed by Al-Mahdi after he became the first Fatimid ruler.
Syr-Darya (Jaxartes) river
Mahdiya (founded 921)
new capital of the Fatimid government.
Ahdath, fityan youth gangs?
Bulkin ibn. Ziri
succeeded Ziri ibn Manad in Ifriqiya after the Fatimids moved to al-Qahira in 970
'Abd Allah ibn Rustam
expelled from Qayrawan for his Kharajite teaching and went to Tahert, in Algeria, where he established the political center of Kharajite Islam. In 777 he was recognized as Imam of Karajites.
'Akka (Acre)
'alim, pl. 'ulama'
one learned in religious law. they were the scholars who discovered the law. Anyone could be this if they were pious, even non:Arab converts.
Al-Qadi al-Nu'man
the most prominent judge (qadi) of the Fatimid state. In his fifty years of service to the Fatimids, he wrote a vast number of books under the encouragement of the caliphs on history, biography, jurisprudence (fiqh) and the interpretation of scripture (ta'wil). After the Fatimid conquest of Egypt and Syria, al-Nu'man left Ifriqiya and travelled to the newly-founded city of al-Qahira (Cairo) where he died in 974 CE/ 363 AH.
"those who profess the unity of God"
Al-Hasan al-
The 11th Imam of Twelver Shi
Al-Mustansir (1036 - 1094)
boy caliph orignally helped by wazir then by mother. Eighth Fāṭimid caliph. He inherited the rule of the most powerful Muslim state of the time, but, during his reign, which was the longest of any Muslim ruler, the Fāṭimid government suffered decisive and irrevocable setbacks.
Muslim, Sahih
one of the Six major collections of the hadith in Sunni Islam, oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It is the second most famous hadith collection among Sunni Muslims and it is considered as the most authentic book of Hadith after Sahih Al-Bukhari. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, also known as Imam Muslim.
Mozarab (< Ar. Musta'rab)
culturally Arab, but still Christian or Jewish.
knowledge, esp. religious knowledge
Ghazi raider
Turkish raiders who harassed non:Muslim territories on the Muslim Turkish frontier. This began during Alp:Arslan's rule.
Fiqh law (in sense of jurisprudence)
the science used to derive legal rules
Al-Ahkam al-sultaniya
Yüsuf b. Tashfïn (r. 1071-1106)
took power in Marrakesh while Abu Bakr b. Umar went south to control Berber tribes. He moved north and west. In 1086 at the battle of Zalaqqa he beats Christians and there was granted a title from the Abbasids. He decides to conquer al:Andulus. He subdued the Ta'ifas.
Salamiya, Syria
Ibn Killis
Na'ura" Persian Wheel"
water wheel dumps water into an aqua duct. It rises on its own.
Abd al:Mumïn (r. 1130-1163)
Almohad. A Berber took the title of Caliph. He was the first non:Arab to take this title. His caliphate consolidated and expanded. Created a dynasty, not a tribal oligarchy. He appointed his son Muhammad as successor, but his other son took control.
Al-Ash'ari (d. 936)
His work eventually became the theology that became the intellectual rationale for Sunni doctrine. He was Mu'tazilite but he was convinced that its emphasis on reason endermined faith.
the ninth Fatimid Caliph. Al-Musta
Usul al-fiqh
"roots" (i.e. methodology) of jurisprudence
Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855)
was an important Muslim scholar and theologian of Persian background [6] He is considered the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). Took part in the Mihna inquisition.
Capital of the Samanid state.
A poet, musician, singer, etc. who became a renowned member of the Abbasid Court, then moved to the Aghlabid court in Tunisia. Real name Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi', nicknamed "Blackbird."
Amsar garrison towns
set up to keep an eye on certain populations in near east where there were not always huge urban populations.
Alï b. Tashfïn (r. 1106-1143)
Almoravid. Succeeded to power. He was very weak and eventually couldn't contain rebellions. Reasons for the loss of power are mercenary soldiers and hired Christians.
Battle of Tours/Poitiers (732)
During the Period of governors. Marked the extent of Islamic conquest into Europe.
Jibal (Zagros region, W. Iran)
Malik ibn Anas (d. 796) Medina
started the Median school of law. They deemed it best because it came from the city of the Prophet. directing others to rely on hadith over scholarly opinions
God's "decree"
Tashfïn b. Alï (1143-1145)
Killed in 1145. This marked the final collapse of the Almoravids when Marrakesh was captured. The ultimate decline was due to a decrease in Military power and decreased ability to respond to threats. Especially Mansura Berbers in the Maghreb.
one of the forms of Islam that Bebers found very attractive. They tended to prefer heterodox forms of Islam. Kharajism espoused equality : perhaps this is why the Berbers liked it.
capital of the Idrisids.
Fakhkh (786)
Battle near Mecca between the partisans of Ali led by his great grandson Husayn, and the Abbasids.
Hamdan Qarmat / Qarmatis (Carmathians)
emerge in Kuwait in 890s. They establish a state outside of Abbasid power and send raids into Iraq and even Mecca, where at one point they stole the Black Stone.
Chagri Beg (d. 1060)
One of two Saljuq Oghuz brothers who gained control of Khurasan and east. He controlled N. Khurasan.
judges. They administered law and were government employees. This started with Umar early on.
supervises repairs and knows the technologies. Makes sure the water is equally divided.
Subuktegin (977 - 997)
First amir of Ghaznavids. Very important. He ruled in Afghanistan.
'Abd al-Rahman III (912 - 961)
Assumed the caliphial title of 'amir al-mu'minin' and the throne name 'al-Nasir li din Allah' (Defender of the religion of God) in 929. Came to power during a time of great prosperity and flourishing culture. Brought many Berbers and Slavs into the armies of the Umayyad caliphate. There was a huge swell in the number of converts to Islam. The society under him became splintered into factions.
Al:Qahira (Cairo) (founded 970)
founded by the Fatimids. Multiple stated
'ayyarun bands of unemployed people?
"rightly guided" caliphs
Saqaliba (Slavs, slaves)
Balkan slaves brought as mercenaries
'Abd al-Rahman I "al-Dakhil" (756 - 788)
Once the Umayyads fell he went to Cordoba and established an Emirate.
Spanish term literally meaning "reconquest" that was applied to the process by which the Christian kingdoms of the northern Iberian peninsula conquered Andalus over a period of 4 centuries.
Al-Rabad revolt (805 - 818)
all of the ethnic groups in Al-Andalus revolted against the Umayyad Emirate.
Battle of Zallaqa (1086)
Yusuf b. Tashfin of the Almoravids defeats the Christians in Al:Andalus. He was granted a title by the Abbasids for this.
Visigoth ruler of Spain before Muslim conquest began.
champions of free will
belief in the unity of God
Up until the 11th century, it was, as the terminus for the western Trans-Sahara trade route, one of the most important trade centres in the Maghreb. Sijilmasa became very wealthy through trade with ancient Ghana, above all through the exchange of luxury items from the Mediterranean for gold.
Nizar (1094)
'Abd al-Rahman II (822 - 852)
His reign was one of the most fruitful and stable periods of the Umayyad caliphate. Had good organization.
sermon during Friday prayer
Fatimids (909-969 in Ifriqiya)
stipulation of successor
'Ubayd Allah al:Mahdi (909 - 934)
claims he was an imam. He flees and then believes he should go to Yemen, but then goes to N. Africa/Tunisia where he attaches himself to Abu
Mihna inquisition
an inquisition led by the theologians of the Mu'tazilite school. The Mihna was defined effectively in 827, but started acting from 833, lasting until 848. The mihna represents the final break of the short-lived cohabitation of religion and state in Islam. The inquisition was instituted by the permission of Caliph al-Ma'mun who supported the Mu'tazilite faction. The inquisition, the Mihna, took its form of being a test that qadis of Baghdad should submit to. They were asked about their opinions on the creation of the Koran. Those qadis that did pass this test, should themselves go on to test others. There was little willingness to pull this through in Damascus, so the Caliph had to perform this test himself here.
'Umar ibn Hafsun uprising (879 - 918)
Originally counter Umayyad, but joined with the Umayyads in 916 against the Christians.
under the Fatimids had rule of Palestine. They menaced the caravans going from Egypt to the Hijaz. Eventually brought back under Fatimid control, but still remained somewhat sovereign.
fancy form of bucket which helps in the lifting of water. Then it is put into a bsin where it spreads out to irrigate.
Firdawasi (Ferdosi), Shah:nameh
Persian. Collected oral traditions of Iran. It is a celebration of pre:Islamic Iran and can be read as an implicit criticism of the Arab conquest of Iran. Supposedly Firdawasi worked on it for 30 years and present it to Mahmud in 1010.
"struggling for the faith"
sort of veil worn by the Lamtuna Berbers
Ghadir Khumm
the celebration of Muhammads designation fo Ali to be his rightful successor. The name represents the place (pool of Khumm) where Muhammad designated this. This started in the late 10th century.
Badr al:Jamali (1073 - 1094)
during factitious times of the Fatimid empire in Egypt, he comes from Armenia to restore order. He succeeds. Eventually becomes very powerful and the Fatimids are essentially his puppets. He combined the role of wazir with full military power. He began replacing the troublesome Turkish malmuks with Sudanese infantry.
Druzes (al-duruz)
Druzid movement derives its name from an Isma'ili missionary, al-Darazi (d.1019/20), who proclaimed the divinity of the sixth Fatimid caliph, Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021). The principal figure, however, behind the formation of the movement's beliefs was Hamzah ibn 'Ali (d. 1021) who not only taught the divinity of al-Hakim but claimed that he himself was the cosmic intellect.
Abu Bakr b. Umar (r. 1059 -1087)
Appointed as Amir of Almoravids by Abdallah b. Yasin. At one point had to go south to control Berber tribes so he put Yusuf b. Tashfin in power.
knowledge, esp. religious knowledge
advisors to appointed son and nephew rulers of provinces.
religious/pilgrimage/commercial center. Typical Maghrebi. Rustamid center.
Ja'far al-Sadiq (d. 765)
Ja'far al-Sadig is the sixth Imam and the last Imam agreed upon by both Twelver and Isma'ili Shi'a. He designated his son Isma'il ibn Jafar to the be his successor, but he died in Jafar's lifetime. Isma'ilis consider Isma'il to be the seventh Imam, but
base of the Almohad movement, in the High Atlas
Ziri ibn Manad
left with power in the Fatimid region in N. Africa when the rest move to Egypt.
Isnad chain of informants conveying an account
chain of informants conveying an account; one of the main parts of Hadith
Berber tribe. the missionary and theologian Ibn Yasin managed to unite the tribes in the alliance of the Almoravids in the middle of the 11th century. This confederacy subsequently conquered Morocco, western Algeria, and Andalusia in Spain, as well as the Ghana Empire. With the invasion of the Maghreb by the Arab Banu Hilal tribe in the 11th century, the Sanhaja were gradually Arabized.
council. Political institution like parliament
Battle of La Tanda (711)
Tariq defeated Roderic and took over.
Las Navas de Tolosa (1212)
The forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his Christian rivals, Sancho VII of Navarre, Pedro II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal in battle against the Berber Muslim Almohad rulers of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula.
Banu Sulaym
a Bedouin tribe that moved westward from the Nile river valley around the time that the Zirids claimed allegiance to the Abbasids in a Fatimid region. Settled in Cyrenaica.
city seized by a Samanid ruler's Turkish Malmuk. There he built a power base. Persianized Turks. Ghaznavids were very militaristic. Used iqta' policy where they send
were a Persian and Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Iranian. Put an end to Ghaznavid rule in India.
Al-Hakam (796 - 822)
Son of Abd al-Rahman put down the Al-Rabad revolt. Sent 15,000 families to Fez.
Shari'a law (in sense of statues)
The body of legal rulings.
Al-Amir (1101 - 1130)
Rustamid Dynasty
Founded by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Rustam, a Kharajite of Iranian origin. The Rustamids adhered to the Ibadi variant of Kharajism and made their capital in Tahart (Algeria). Eventually destroyed by the rise of the Fatimids in 909.
Ibn Rushd/Averroes (d. 1198)
a master of early Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, Arabic music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy, geography, mathematics and physics.
Khwarizm (Khorezm)
Area originally part of the Ghaznavids that was taken over by the Saljuqs in 1042.
Ziri ibn Manad
Namesake of the Zirids. Was the main defender of Fatimid interests in Algeria until his death in battle against the Zanata in 971. Fatimids left him in control of N. Africa when they went to Egypt.
Samanids (to 999)
Muslim principality that had the most contact with the Turkish peoples. Even though it was a self-consciously Persian regime, its military force was composed largely of Turkish mamluks. Furthermore, although the economic base of the Samanid regime was the irrigated agriculture of Transoxiana, a large part of its wealth derived from the commerce of the slave trade. Broke off from the Abbasid empire.
Al-Awza'I (d. 774) Syria
created the Syrian/Umayyad school of law reliance on the "living tradition," or the uninterrupted practice of Muslims handed down from preceding generations
Da'i missionary propagandist
Tended to be very pious, very intelligent, well versed in Qur'an and theology. They would come and settle innocuously with aliases in communities and convince people to join them. Associated with Isma'ili.
fortified monastery like where Yasin lived.
"those who dwell in the ribäås" : namesake of the Almoravids
Donatist heresy
Baluch, Baluchistan
wrote many books. Described India.
A Turkish malmuk officer in the Fatimid army who was one of the most powerful members of the Buyid military establishment and was determined not to become subject to what he regarded as a bunch of sheep herders. He consulted with the FATIMIDS, not the BUYIDS to take over Baghdad. He took over Baghdad in 1057m handed off the Abbasid caliph and declared loyalty to the Fatimid caliph who then cut him off. He was later re:defeated by Tughril.
Jewish (converted to Islam) was the wazir of Egypt.
literally the place where the sunsets. It was initially part of the Caliphate, but generally politically autonomous. Overtime it became a refuge zone for out of favor princes (esp. under the Abbasids). They still maintained a close link with the Empire.
great mosque created by the Fatimids.
"occultation" of the "hidden" (gha'ib) imam
personal opinion or judgment
Musa al-Kazim
was the seventh of the Twelve Imams. He was the son of the sixth Imam, Ja
Muslim statement of faith
Arabic word denoting the chief administrative officer to the head f state in a premodern Muslim state.
Al-Hakam II (961 - 976)
Umayyad. He secured peace with the Christian kingdoms of northern Iberia, and made use of the stability to develop agriculture through the construction of irrigation works. Economical development was also encouraged through the widening of streets and the building of markets. He was fond of books and learning,
Yahyä b. Umar (d. 1055)
("chaimberlain", cf. wazir)
Tughril Beg (1037 - 1072)
One of two Saljuq Oghuz brothers who gained control of Khurasan and west. He started relying less on Turkmen and more on malmuks. In letting the Turkmen raid west almost uncontrolled, his enemies were weakened. He controlled S. Khurasan and anything he could conquer to the west. He takes over Baghdad and makes his capital in Zagros Mountains, not Baghdad in 1055. In 1063 he died with no successors. He contributed to the consolidation of Sunni dominance over Shi'ism in most of southwestern Asia over the next century.
"the veiled ones" : They men were veiled. Almoravid phenomenon.
Caravanserai (karvan:saray)
those who embrace Islam/converts to Islam. Indigenous to Andalus especially.

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