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History Final

Terms

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Divine Comedy
by Dante Aligheiri, it is the expression of the medieval preoccupations by talking about Dante's journey through Hell and Purgatory, eventually ending in Paradise. It foreshadowed some of the later works of the Italian Renaissance by being written in the vernacular and combining Greco-Roman classical themes with current concepts.
Avignon
The site of papal residence after the death of Pope Boniface VIII. Later, rival papal claims from both it and Rome pleaded for the loyalty of Latin Christians.
Tikal
Classical Mayan city featuring a great plaza for religious and cultural ceremonies
Reconquista (Reconquest)
Beginning in the 11th century, Iberian Christian states attempted to recapture territory taken by Muslims. Finally concluded in 1492 with the capture of Granada.
usury
one of the products of the just price concept that encouraged no loans or interest. One should be self-sufficient.
Shinto
The native religion of Japan meaning "way of the gods." Eventually was a blending of Buddhism and its own religion.
Carolingian Renaissance
period of intellectual, cultural, and economic revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries, with the peak of the activities occurring during the reigns of both Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.
Great Western Schism
a period when the rival papal claimants at Avignon and Rome vied for the loyalties of Latin Christians. The conflict ended with the papacy being returned to the traditional location of Rome.Though the papacy gained its independence, it weakened its abilities to challenge the rising power of larger monarchies.
ayllu
The clans in the Andean civilizations. The clan members thought of each other as brother and sister and were obligated to help one another. This system provided the model for labor organization and distribution of labor in every level of Andean society.
Investiture controversy
Dispute between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.
Boniface VIII
Pope that suggested that papacy was superior to "every human creature." The control the papacy once had came to a close due to overwhelming claim to superiority.
T'ang Empire
An empire that unified China and part of Central Asia. It was founded in 618 and ended in 907. The emperors presided over a magnificent court at the capital of Chang'an.
St. Thomas Aquinas
Premiere theologian and philosopher of the Medieval period. Dominican priest in Paris.
Gothic
Medieval form of architecture which featured tall buildings, a new arch and the flying buttress.
Forbidden City
The closed imperial complex built by Khubilai Khan and formed by man-made islands and lakes. Described in detail by Marco Polo.
Ming Empire
Empire based in China the Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan (Mongol) Empire. Developed porcelain and other goos which became prized.
Manoralism
The system of large, self-sufficient landholdings consisting of the lord's residence, outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding lands.
Wat Tyler
Led a large revolt in 1381 where English peasants invaded London, calling for an end to all forms of serfdom and to most kinds of manorial dues. While the revolt was stopped it did effectively increase wages.
the Golden Horde
Mongol khanate founded by Gengis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam.
footbinding
Female practice that appeared among slave dancers in Tang court but only became widespread during the Song period. The practice later became a status symbol among the elite.
Mongols
Originally a nomadic people, with Genghis Khan this group established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa in attempting to finance a crusade.
Magna Carta
"Great Charter" which affirmed that monarchs are subject to established law, confirmed the independence of the church and the city of London, and guaranteed nobles' hereditary rights.
Summa Theologica
Written by Thomas Aquinas, it is one of the most notable scholastic works of the medieval period. Aquinas' work founded Christian belief on Aristotelian principles.
Temujin
Original name of Genghis Khan.
Sui Empire
Under this empire China was reunified and reestablished with Confucianism. They also built the Grand Canal and repaired the Great Wall while extending the empire into Korea and Vietnam. Overextension eventually led to the Tang taking power.
Charlemagne
Son of Pepin, he became the Emperor of the Carolingian Empire. Though the empire did not last long, it set up a heritage for struggling Europe.
Kubilai
Last of the Mongol great Khans and founder of the Yuan Empire. Also built the forbidden city.
Johann Gutenberg
Inventor of the printing press.
Marco Polo
Italian explorer who supposedly traveled to China, meeting and serving for Khubilai Khan.
Aztecs
Known to themselves as Mexica, this group created a powerful empire in Mexico from 14th centurey to the early 16th century.
Uigur Empire
An empire led by Turkic-speakers which controlled much of Mongolia and central Asia from 744 to 840 CE.
nomadism
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.
Feudalism
A society where kings, vassals, lords and serfs played part.
Hundred Years War
The long conflict between the King of France and his vassals (especially the kings of England). Featured such individuals as Henry V and Joan of Arc.
Granada
the last Muslim stronghold in Spain. Conquered in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella.
khalifa
Office established in succession to Mohammed, to rule the Islamic empire.
Black Death
A plague (both bubonic and pneumonic) that spread throughout most of Europe between the years 1347-1351. In that time, it killed one third of the population. Transmitted both by flea bites and by contact with infected individuals.
John Hus
Czech religious thinker that was greatly influence by Wycliff. Eventually executed by the Roman Catholic church.
Incas
Largest and most power Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.
Genghis Khan
Originally known as Temugin, he became the "great leader." Created an empire which spread from China to Poland.
yasa
The law code set up by Genghis Khan in an attempt to civilize and apply laws to the nomadic Mongols.
tributary system
A system in which, from the time of the Han Empire, countries in East and Southeast Asia not under the direct control of empires based in China nevertheless enrolled as tributary states, acknowledging the superiority of the emperors in China in exchange for trading rights or strategic alliances.
Ogodei
The son and rightful heir of Genghis Khan. If not for his death in 1241, he would have caused great damage in Europe.
Grand Canal
Built by the Sui to facilitate trade and communication, it connected the Yellow and the Yangzi rivers and distance of 1,100 miles.
Battle of Hastings
Occured in 1066 and allowed the Norman control, under William the Bastard to take control of England.
tax farming
An economic practice used by the Il-khan and later the Mongols in China, to get money. The system was used to extract maximum wealth from a certain domain.
kamikaze
"sacred wind" which protected the Japanese from the Mongol invasion.
Maya
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated on the Yucatan peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras, though it never congealed into an empire. Contributed in mathematics, astronomy and the development of the calendar.
Tiahuanaco
Pre-Incan Andean civilization whose remains are on near La Paz. Was influential in culture and practice on the Incan empire such as stony masonry.
Flying Buttress
Gothic architectural design with an external support. It allowed cathedrals to be built to great heights.
Timur the Lame
Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadei Khanate, he gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. His conquest eventually led to the creation of the Mughal empire in India.
Tawantinsuyu
The Quechua name for the Incan empire was which can be translated as "The Four Regions."
Beijing
Became the capital of China under Mongol domination.
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
ulama
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies.
Averroes
Islamic philosopher in Span from 1126-1198. Also known as Ibn Rushd
Huitzilopochtli
The chief god of the Mexica or Aztec. Originally associated with war, as the empire grew, he became the Sun god and was worshiped throughout Mesoamerica. Aztecs believed he required a steady diet of human hearts.
Ottoman Turks
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia in 1300 CE. After conquering the Byzantine empire it was centrally located in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople)
William of Ockham
He was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher that along with Thomas Aquinas and Averroes to be one of the major figures of medieval thought.
lama
Tibetan Buddhist priest that became increasingly popular with some Mongol rulers during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Innocent III
Famous for his efforts in expanding papal authority.
Olmec
The first Mesoamerican civilization that existed between 1200 and 400 BCE. There civilization in central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers and monumental construction. They left a lasting influence on later cultures in astronomy, calendars, artistic style and culture.
Song Empire
Empire in ventral and Southern China from 960 to 1126 CE. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.
Albigensian crusade
a crusade begun by Innocent III against the Cathar heresy in southern France.
Mandarin
a blending of the native Chinese language and the language of their northern Mongol rulers.
Jacquerie
As authorities attempted to limit the amount of money possible for serfs, this widespread revolt took place in France in 1358. As part of the revolt peasants lotted castles and killed dozens.
Hanseatic League
An association of Northern Europe trading cities and their guilds. The group effectively established a monopoly in northern Europe.
Teotihuacan
Powerful Mayan city sate in central Mexico. At the height of its power, more than 125,000 people inhabited the city.

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