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IB History Review

Review for IB History of the Americas and 20th Century Topics.


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turning the war over to the South Vietnamese
Night of the Long Knives
purge of members in the SA that were a threat to Hitler's power
Gorbachev introduced free speech, freedom of religion, unions, and other freedoms
Yenan Terror
Mao's movement used to instill ideology and fear and brainwash his followers using denunciation rallies and a Chinese KGB
Polish free trade union that became a political party
secret police set up by Lenin that arrested "enemies of the revolution."
mass line
trained communists were sent to listen to the people in order to appeal and adapt their policies
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; Set up in 1949 to coordinate industries and trade of Eastern European countries
Red Guard
students; Mao's army; was to agitate and organize the masses
Triple Entente
France, Russia, and Britain
Eisenhower Doctrine
US pledged military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communism
Flexible Response
an array of military options that depended on the gravity of the crisis at hand
Black Shirts
Italian Fascists groups that were supporters of Mussolini
Berlin Wall
Built under Khrushchev to keep East Berliners from going West where conditions were better
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Red Terror
the campaign of mass arrests and executions conducted by the Bolshevik government
"living space" that Hitler sought to support an Aryan population
Operation Rolling Thunder
intended to escalate the Vietnam war; authorized the bombing of North Vietnam
Group responsible for administering 5 year plans; dictated all things related to work and production
Peace with Honor
Nixon's policy of withdrawing from Vietnam, but with honor
Enabling Act
enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament
Helsinki conference
August 1975; all countries recognized borders set out after WWII, including invasion of Germany; agreed to respect human rights - freedom of speech and freedom to move from country to country
Great Terror
purges of communist officials, intelligentsia, church members, army officers, kulaks, and counter revolutionaries, eliminating opposition
Locarno Treaties
settled Germany's border disputes after WWI
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Stalin tried to appeal to West to make front against fascism, but West refused
"restructuring", Gorbachev tried to revive the Soviet economy by introducing the elements of capitalism; small businesses were allowed and private ownership in agriculture
Reichstag Fire
gave Hitler an excuse for the Enabling act convincing the government that Germany was under threat from Communism
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
policy to build up nuclear arsenal so much that the other side will be afraid to attack
Kellogg-Briand Pact
treaty between the United States and other Powers providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy after WWI; failed
Radical Marxist political party founded by Lenin; seized power during the Russian Revolution.
the secret state police in Nazi Germany
Hundred Flowers
campaign to seek out political opponents by allowing them temporarily to speak out
March on Rome
Mussolini's attempt to seize power; king asked Mussolini to become premier in a coalition cabinet if the Fascists would only have three posts
Reagan Doctrine
US would foster and support irregular forces to overthrow pro-Soviet governments in the Third world
Johnson Doctrine
domestic revolution in the Western Hemisphere would no longer be a local matter when "the object is the establishment of a Communist dictatorship"
New Look Foreign Policy
US would build up Strategic Air Command because of fear of the effects of the Domino Theory
Acerbo Law
1923 electoral reform that would give 2/3 of the seats to the party with the most votes; it enabled Mussolini to create a dictatorship
Anti-Rightist Campaign
eliminated anyone who spoke out against Mao during the Hundred Flowers campaign
Domino Theory
If one country was allowed to fall to communism, then others surrounding it would fall too
consolidated power by putting all parts of German society under Nazi control
Ping Pong Diplomacy
Nixon sends US athletes to China to help ease tensions between the two countries
Five Year Plans
Created under Stalin to rapidly modernize Russia's industry - 1st: heavy industry, 2nd: diversification, 3rd: weapons production; attempted to rapidly modernize industry
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Agent Orange
a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas
Cult of Personality
religion, education, youth programs, and propaganda all designed to raise support
"lightening war", quick surprise bombing of cities
Red Army
army of the Soviet Union
Special Period
an extended period of economic crisis that began in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union
special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925
Marshall Plan
1947, aid given to war torn countries of Europe
Peasants were forced to work on collective farms
established to strengthen links between various communist parties
military alliance that constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party
Truman Doctrine
US policy to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures
Berlin Airlift
Allies provided food and supplies to those in Berlin during the Berlin Blockade
policy of European leaders of appeasing Hitler in order to maintain peace but failed as Hitler only escalated his efforts
Kennedy Doctrine
containment of communism and the reversal of Communist progress in the Western Hemisphere
Khrushchev's Secret Speech stripped the legitimacy of Stalinist rivals, boosting his power domestically
SIOP (Single Integrated Operational Plan)
Kennedy's plan for the possible launching of a first strike against the eastern bloc
Battle for Land
public works program of draining marshland
Organization of American States
Marshall Mission
U.S. negotiated a cease-fire between KMT and CCP; KMT demilitarized many troops without helping them to integrate back into civilian life; the troops joined the CCP and gave them former Japanese weapon stockpiles
April Theses
Lenin drafts a document rejecting the Provisional Government of Russia established by the Duma
getting rid of German culture society, press, economy, and politics
Cultural Revolution
A radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out by the Red Guard to get rid of art, teachers, members of the CCP, and anything countering the revolution
Massive Retaliation
US would "roll back" communism using nuclear weapons
Lateran Accords
gave recognition to the Fascist Party in exchange for recognition of Papal power over the Vatican
Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler's failed coup d'etat that led to his imprisonment where he wrote his book gained public attention
Rapid Deployment Force
created by Carter to respond to crisis in foreign places immediately
Nuclear Use Theorists (NUTs)
during Regan's administration, they thought the US could fight and win a nuclear war
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
26th of July Movement
revolutionary group of Cuban exiles organized by Castro
reduction of tension between the Soviet Union and the US
Berlin Blockade
a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy
Nixon Doctrine
US would honor existing defense commitments, but in the future, countries would have to fight their own wars without the support of American ground troops
Peaceful Coexistance
denied that war was the inevitable outcome of capitalism and accepted the possibility of a peaceful transition from capitalism to socialism
Great Leap Forward
the five-year plan for 1958 which was an attempt to quickly modernize China; collectivization and export of food for industry caused it to fail
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
vaporization of nuclear missiles from spaces and accelerated arms race
France, Russia, Britain, and Italy
Willy Brandt's policy of "opening toward the east" that increased relations between West and East Germany in 1972
Rapid Industrialization
Stalin's attempt to free Russia from dependence on capitalist states for goods
aka Sturm Abteilung; Nazi militia created by Hitler that helped him to power but was eclipsed by the SS after 1943
Iron Curtain Speech
speech by Churchill that was seen as an ultimatum or call to war against the USSR
CIA can turn intelligence operations on domestic activities
Nuremberg Rallies
showed the Germans the Nazis' power
Nuremberg Laws
discrimination against Jews
Moncada Attack
Castro's failed attack on the Moncada military barracks
US foreign policy to prevent the expansion of communism
Brezhnev Doctrine
USSR claimed the right to interfere in the internal affairs of its satellite states to "safeguard socialism"
Secret Speech
Khrushchev denounced the cult of personality that surrounded Stalin and said that the purges were a crime
Bay of Pigs
an unsuccessful attempt by United States-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro
Battle for Births
Mussolini's failed attempt to increase the Italian population
Carter Doctrine
US would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian gulf region
Prague Spring
1968; Dubcek's reforms in Czechoslovakia to lift censorship, trade with the West, and form political groups; Condemned by Brezhnev
Rectification Movement
first deceptive ideology movement by the CCP, presented as a positive "rectification" opportunity but was actually a campaign against intellectuals
Army of the Republic of Vietnam, Northern Army
Hitler's treaty with the pope to protect Catholic interests and to get papal validation of the Nazi Party
Warsaw Pact
an organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe, created by Khrushchev in response to NATO
Munich Conference
Hitler promised that Germany would seek no further territory once it acquired the Sudtenland

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