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The Roaring Twenties


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System allowing a certain number of foreign immigrants to come into the United States. This was due to xenophobia.
Quota System
Instead of an open, cosmopolitan society eager to accept, in her stirring line, the “huddled masses yearning to breathe free,” America now became committed to preserving a homogeneous, “Anglo-Saxon” population.
Emma Lazarus
Opposition to, hatred of, or agitation against Jews. Distaste for immigrants from eastern Europe, many of whom were Jewish, expanded in the United States in the 1920s.
Revealed that for the first time a majority of Americans (54 million in a population of 106 million) lived in “urban” rather than “rural” places.
Census of 1920
Ways urbanization changed life for Americans
It affected family structure, educational opportunities, and dozens of other aspects of human existence. Couples seemed to marry more because of love and physical attraction than because of social position or economic advantage or because of the wishes of their parents. Married slightly later in life as well.
In such families husbands and wives would deal with each other as equals, which given existing conditions meant sharing housework and child care, downplaying male authority, and stressing mutual satisfaction in sexual and other matters.
Intrafamily democracy
Child-care experts (a need breed) agreed that routine medical examinations and good nutrition were of central importance, but they were divided about how the socialization and psychological development of the young should be handled.
“Scientific” child raising
A child-care expert and behavioral psychologist who advocated a strict upbringing for children. He expressed the view that children are made, not born, that they are shaped by the stimuli of their environment.
John B. Watson
A juvenile court judge, suggested a kind of trial marriage, a period during which a young couple could get used to each other before undertaking to raise a family. By practicing contraception such couples could separate without doing serious damage to an
The Companionate Marriage by Benjamin B. Lindsey
The 1920s were known as the ______, so called for the popular music of the day as a symbol of the many changes taking place in the mass culture.
Jazz Age
Why did young people in this period seem more unconventional than their grandparents?
The young people of the generation born around the turn of the century had grown up before and during the Great War. That war had raised, and its outcome dashed, their hopes for the future. Now the narrowness and prudery of so many of their elders and the stuffy conservatism of nearly all politicians seemed not merely old-fashioned by ludicrous.
His Freudian psychology and the more accessible ideas of the British “Sexologist” reached steadily deeper into the popular psyche.
Havelock Ellis
Outgrowth of a wartime agency, was founded in 1920 and was soon conducting investigations of the working conditions women faced in different industries and how various laws affected them.
Department of Labor’s Women’s Bureau
In 1934, Congress created this and gave it power to regulate radio broadcasting and television. It could revoke the license of radio stations that failed to operate in the public interest.
Federal Communications Commission
Won several events in the 1912 Olympic Games, was a football all-American, and played professional baseball. He was perhaps the United States's greatest all-around athlete of the twentieth century.
Jim Thorpe
He was a leader of the rural regionalist painters, seeking, he said, to show the “struggle of man against nature.”
John Stewart Curry
Outlawed the use of grain in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages, primarily as a conservation measure.
Lever Act of 1917
Got control of the movement (KKK) and organized a massive membership drive, diverting a major share of the initiation fees into their own pockets.
Edward Y. Clarke and Elizabeth Tyler
Powerful leader of the Indiana Klan, a middle-aged reprobate who was convicted of assaulting and causing the death of a young woman, the rank and file abandoned the organization in droves.
David C. Stephenson
In 1928, New York's Democratic governor was the first Catholic to be nominated for the presidency by a major party. Herbert Hoover soundly defeated him, but the distribution of the vote suggested a major realignment in national parties was occurring.
Alfred E. Smith
The herald of the new day was him, his autobiography was published posthumously in 1918. His disillusionment long antedated the war, but his description of late 19th century corruption and materialism and his warning that industrialism was crushing the h
Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams
A neighborhood or district in which members of a particular ethnic or racial group are forced to live by law or as a result of economics or social discrimination.
The process of decay was speeded by the influx of what the black sociologist called “ignorant and unsophisticated peasant people” from the rural South, who were inexperienced in city living.
E. Franklin Frazier
When they made their classic sociological analysis of “_______”, they discovered that although black and white children attended the same schools, the churches, the larger movie houses, and other places of public accommodation were segregated.
Robert S. and Helen M. Lynd- “Middletown”
Proud of being black and prepared to resist both mistreatment and white ideas. “Up you mighty race; you can accomplish what you will!”
“New Negro”
Effect of automobile on American life
The automobile seemed an unalloyed blessing-part toy, part tool, part symbol of American freedom, prosperity, and individualism.
First person to manufacture a good low-priced car.
Ransom E. Olds
Owner of Boeing Air Transport began flying passengers and mail between San Francisco and Chicago, using the M-40, a plane of his own design and manufacture. Two years later he produced the first all-metal low-wing plane and, in 1933, the twin-engine 247
William F. Boeing
He was secretary of state under Harding. Called the Washington Conference.
Charles Evan Hughes
Secretary of the treasury in the 1920s. He supported low taxes for the rich, higher tariffs, a return to laissez-faire policies, and cutting government expenses through more efficient administration. His policies balanced the federal budget and reduced t
Andrew Mellon
Harding put him in control of the Agriculture policies.
Henry C. Wallace
President Harding filled many appointive positions with old political and personal friends from his home state. Headed by his attorney general, Harry Daugherty, soon became involved in corruption and numerous scandals, abusing their office for personal p
“Ohio Gang”
Headed the “Ohio Gang”, also was made attorney general, also was appointed to be Secretary of the Interior.
Harry M. Daugherty
In 1921, Congress passed this. It created a director of the (federal) budget to help prepare a unified budget, and a comptroller general to audit government accounts.
Budget and Accounting Act (1921)
The 1920s _______ of midwestern Republicans and southern Democrats represented a conservative populism of indebted postwar farmers. Their opponent was "the interests" of rich bankers and industrialists. They generally favored lower taxes and hi
Farm Bloc
They granted strong protection to America's "infant industries" like rayon, china, and chemicals, yet it was moderate in its protection of most other industrial products.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922
“The Business of the United States is Business”
Quote by Warren G. Harding. Harding and Coolidge were uncritical advocates of the business point of view. “We want less government in business and more business in government.”
President Harding's secretary of the interior, arranged to lease government oil reserves to private oil companies in return for personal, non-repayable "loans." The central figure in the Teapot Dome scandal, he was eventually fined and imprison
Albert B. Fall
His Pan-American Petroleum Company got the Elk Hills reserve in California. This was part of the Worst Harding Scandals. He lent Albert Fall $100,000 in hard cash, handed over secretly in a “little black bag.” The culprits escaped conviction on defra
Edward L. Doheny
A government oil reserve in Wyoming under the navy's control. It became involved in a scandal when President Harding's secretary of the interior, Albert Fall, leased the reserves to private oil companies in return for a bribe.
Teapot Dome
The reserve that Doheny got in the Scandal
Elk Hills
Bribed Secretary of the Interior Fall to lease oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, to his Mammoth Oil Company. He was convicted of jury tampering and contempt of the Senate.
Harry F. Sinclair
A conservative corporation lawyer closely allied with the Morgan banking interests.
John W. Davis
Dismayed by the conservatism of Coolidge and Davis, he was backed by the farm bloc, the Socialist party, the American Federation of Labor, and numbers of intellectuals, entered the race as the candidate of a new Progressive party.
Robert M. La Follette
In 1921, Secretary of State Hughes called a conference to reaffirm the Open Door policy in Asia and place limitations on naval construction. The conference achieved some of his goals, but only for a brief time.
Washington Conference
The U.S., Great Britain, France, Japan, and Italy agreed to stop building battleships for ten years and to reduce their fleets of capital ships to a fixed ratio, with Great Britain and the U.S. limited to 525,000 tons, Japan to 315,000 tons, and France a
Five-Power Treaty
The U.S., Great Britain, Japan, and France, committed these nations to respect one another’s interests in the islands of the Pacific and to confer in the event that any other country launched an attack in the area.
Four-Power Treaty
At the Washington Naval Conference, all participants agreed to respect China's independence and to maintain the Open Door in Asia.
Nine-Power Treaty
United States refused to accept membership in it. This tribunal could settle disputes only when the nation involved agreed. Most of the people of the U.S. agreed to joining, but the advocates were never able to persuade two-thirds of the Senate to ratify
World Court
A moral indictment of war, an "international kiss" that outlawed war as an instrument of national policy. It contained no enforcement machinery.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Secretary of State under Coolidge, In 1927 he proposed that their countries agree never to go to war with each other. He found the idea as repugnant.
Frank Kellogg
French Foreign Minister, he was eager to collect allies against possible attack by a resurgent Germany. Proposed an alliance between France and US.
Aristide Briand
Recinded the U.S. claim to the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations as expressed in the Roosevelt Corollary. It laid the groundwork for the Good Neighbor policy of the Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt administrations.
Clark Memorandum (1930)
State Department officer _________'s 1930 memorandum recinded the U.S. claim to the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations as expressed in the Roosevelt Corollary. It laid the groundwork for the Good Neighbor policy of the Hoover and
Reuben Clark's
Puppet state that the Japanese marched with an army and was converted from the long dominant Chinese Manchuria.
Hoover’s Secretary of State. Sent to investigate Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Issued a doctrine announcing that the United States would not recognize the legality of Japan's action nor extend recognition to Manchukuo.
Henry Stimson
When Japan invaded Manchuria (northern China) in 1931 and set up the puppet state of Manchukuo, U.S. Secretary of State issued a doctrine announcing that the United States would not recognize the legality of Japan's action nor extend recognition to Manch
Stimson Doctrine
International arrangement to help European nations pay their war debts to the United States and help Germany pay is reparations obligations. The onset of the depression in the 1930s ruined chances that either war debts or reparations would continue to be
Dawes Plan
Governor, born and raised in New York’s Lower East Side slums, affable, witty, determinedly casual of manner, he had been schooled in machine politics by Tammany Hall. He was a Catholic. He managed to combine a basic conservatism with humanitarian conc
Al Smith
Referred to the one-party (Democratic) political system that dominated the South from the 1890s to the 1950s.
“Solid South”
A plow manufacturer from Moline, Illinois, advanced a scheme to “make the tariff effective for agriculture.” Responsible for the McNary-Haugen Bill.
George N. Peek
Passed Congress in 1927 and again in 1928. It proposed a plan to raise farm prices by having the government purchase price-depressing farm surpluses and sell them in foreign markets. Farmers would pay an "equalization fee" for losses the govern
McNary-Haugen Bill
Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover were all ____ and ____.
Republicans; Pro-big business
Andrew Mellon's Policies
1) Lower taxes for rich, not middle or lower
2) Raise tariff
3) Return to laissez-faire
4) Cut cost of gov't to balance budget
Opposition to Mellon's policies from _____.
Farm Bloc
Replaced the Underwood-Simmons tariff with a higher tariff that favored industry.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Coolidge defeated Democrat ______ in the 1924 election.
John W. Davis
Ran on the Prgressive Republican ticket in the 1924 election.
Robert M. La Follette
Return to ______ in foreign affairs
Japan had increased involvement in ______ in spite of ________.
Manchuria; Open Door Policy
Naval construcion race between ______,______, & ______
U.S.; Great Britain; Japan
Critisisms of the 5 Power Treaty
1) Said nothing about other warships and weapons of war
2) Gave Japan dominance in the Pacific
3) Left Philippines and Hawaii indefensible
Left indefensible in 5 power treaty
Philippines and Hawaii
Critisisms of the 4 Power Treaty
There was no promise to help one another or restrain themselves.
The Washingtion Conference reflected diminishing relations w/ Japan, particularly since it was left out of __________.
National Origins Act of 1924
France feared _______.
German retaliation
A new approach to Latin American that replaced the resented dollar diplomacy.
Good Neighbor Policy
Appointed by Coolidge as ambassador to Mexico, improving relations.
Dwight Morrow
In 1934, the US renounced the ___________ which had given the US to intervene in Cuba at will.
Platt Amendment
Japanese invaded ________ and renamed it ________.
Manchuria; Manchukuo
_______ of China appealed to the League of Nations and US in response to Japanese.
Chiang Kai-shek
Bombing of ______ angered many due to their bombing of _____.
Shanghai; Residential Districts
Germans devalued mark to ________ of its pre-ware value.
With the Dawes Plan (1924) it was an international arrangement to help European nations pay their war debts to the United States and help Germany pay is reparations obligations.
The Young Plan
The Dawes Plan loaned how much to Germany to rebuild?
200 million
What respect was the Election of 1928 unique? (Hint: Al Smith)
It was the 1st break in the "Solid South"
1920's represented a return to ______ of companies to large trusts.
______ formerly considered illegal were now encouraged by the gov't
Trade Associations
George Peek proposed to recover agricultural loses by charging farmers _________.
Equalization Fees
McNary-Haugen Bill ______by Coolidge ____ times
vetoed; 2
Booming economy built on weak base. Wealth _______.
Productive capacity ahead of _______
Buying power
National Origins Acts in 1921.

___ of foreign born in _____
3%; 1910
National Origins Acts in 1924.

___ of foreign born in _____
2%; 1890
Urbanization's Effect on Family
1) Marriage for love
2) Married later; fewer children
3) Women working more
4) Black & Irish women worked
5) Companionate Marriage
6) Fewer children working
7) Contraception
8) Child rearing/raising studies
9) Divorce easier
10) loosening of sexual mores
11) Development of distinct homo culture
Birth control advocate who formed the American Birth Control League.
Margaret Sanger
Margaret Sanger formed this.
American Birth Control League
Court case, struck down law limiting hours for women workers.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Movie with the 1st plot.
"The Great Train Robbery"
Movie with new effects by D.W. Griffith; considered 1st important modern movie. Sympathetic to KKK.
"Birth of a Nation"
1st movie with sound
"The Jazz Singer"
Considered greatest comedian in 20 century.
Charlie Chaplain
First radio station.
KDKA Pittsburgh
The first radio network.
National Broadcasting Company
Big name in football.
Harold "Red" Grange
Big name in boxing.
Jack Dempsey
Big name in tennis.
Bill Tilden
Big name in baseball.
Babe Ruth
Big name in golf.
Bobby Jones
Female swimmer. Swam the English Channel.
Gertrude Ederle
All around olympic athlete.
Jim Thorpe
Main collegiate sport.
Lively dance that became popular.
Well-known female evangalist. Claimed she was kidnapped.
Aimee Semple McPherson
Well-known evangalist.
Billy Sunday
Rise of ______ in religion to maintain traditional values.
Trial arguing teaching of evolution in schools.
Scopes (Monkey) Trial
Biology teacher who broke TN law to teach evolution in classroom.
John Scopes
Defended John Scopes in Scopes Trial
Clarence Darrow
Prosecutor in Scopes Trial. Fundamentalist.
William Jennings Bryan
Prohibition popular in the ____ and ______.
South; West
Prohibition called the ____ by Hoover.
"Noble Experiment"
Outlawed alcohol
Volsted Act
Abuses of prohibition
speakeasies, bootleggers, bathtub gin, organized crime
Organized Crime Kingpin in Chicago
Al Capone
Event that occured due to organized crime
St. Valentines Day Massacre
Ku Klux Klan revived in 1914 at ______.
Stone Mountain
Head of KKK in Indiana. Killed a woman.
David Stephenson
Founder of the new KKK. Former preacher.
William J. Simmons
Arrested and charged with murder and robbery in Braintree, MA. They were italian anarchists.
Sacco and Vanzetti
"Lost Generation" coined by ____.
Gertrude Stein
"This Side of Paridise" and "The Great Gatsby"
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Expatriot in Paris. "Farewell to Arms" and "Sun Also Rises"
Ernest Hemmingway
"Ethan Frome"
Edith Wharton
"My Candle Burns at Both Ends" poet
Edna St. Vincent Millay
1920's artist
Georgia O'Keefe
American Mercury Magazine

"Puritanism is the haunting fear that someone, somewhere may be happy."
H.L. Mencken
Architect. Functionalism.
"Form follows function."
Frank Lloyd Wright
"Main Street", "Babbitt", "Elmer Gantry" 1st American writer to win Nobel Prize.
Sinclair Lewis
New way to distribute books.
Book of the Month Club
Famous black poet
Langston Hughes
Harlem became a cultural center for blacks. This became known as _____.
Harmlem Renaisssance
Jazz from ______ to Harlem
New Orleans
Black jazz artists
Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellingtion, Besse Smith, W.C. Handy, Jelly Roll Morton
Created Universal Negro Improvement Association. Helped black pride, and return to Africa movement. Was arrested on defrauding charges.
Marcus Garvey
US controlled ____ of world's wealth.
Moving assembly line. Created Model T.
Henry Ford
Time and motion studies
Frederick Taylor
New method of purchasing. Led to more people purchasing expensive goods.
Installment Buying
Method of talking without moving lips.
Ford Whisper
"History is more or less the bunk."
Henry Ford
Built the first plane
Wilbur and Orville Wright
1st commercial flight
Malcolm & Haimes Lockheed
1st Transatlantic nonstop solo flight
Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh flew 1st Transatlantic nonstop solo flight in what plane?
Spirit of St. Louis
Said Jesus was the best advertiser.
Bruce Barton

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