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World History: Patterns of Interaction, Chapter 6


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What were the tribunes?
Assembly and representatives of the plebians. Protected from unfair laws, they gained additional power over time.
What did the 12 stone tablets do?
Kept in the forum, they were the basis for Roman law and established the idea that all free citizens had the right to protection of law. Nobody could twist the laws their way. They were written by ten officials.
What were the two assemblies and what did they do?
Centuriate Assembly- patrician, controlled and appointed tribunes, made laws
Tribal Assembly- plebian, elected tribunes, made laws
What happened in times of crisis?
A dictator was appointed for six months. Chosen by consuls, elected by Senate.
What does a lenient policy lead to?
A long-lasting empire
What were the Punic Wars?
3 Wars between Carthage and Rome.
1) Took Sicily in defeat of Carthage
2) Romans defeat Hannibal
3) Romans lay siege to Carthage
What were the two classes in Roman society?
patricians- aristocratic landowners who inherit
and hold power.
plebians- common farmers, artisians,
merchants, majority of people.
Who founds Rome?
Romulus and Remus, the twin sons of a god and a princess who were raised by a she-wolf
What did the Romans adapt from the Greeks and Etruscans?
Etruscans- rituals
Greeks- gods (but w/ different names)
What does Augustine write?
In The City of God, Augustine says that humans need the grace of God to be saved but that God is merciful and gives his grace freely.
What three areas needed reform during the decline of Rome?
What sources of wealth are lost during the decline?
Trade, agricultural wealth, and treasure from conquered.
Why are there food shortages? What happens because of this?
Harvests are poor because of unfertile land and land destroyed by war. Taxes rise and farmers abandon land. Disease spreads and population decreases.
Why are there few technological advances in agriculture?
Slaves are cheap.
Who were considered barbarians?
All non-Romans
What was the most humiliating defeat?
When the Persians capture Valerian.
What are mercenaries?
Foreign soldiers that fight for money.
Who is Diocletian? What does he do?
A strong-willed army leader and bold absolute ruler, he limited personal freedoms, doubled army size by drafting POWs, hiring mercenaries. He ordered farmers and workers to work for life. He divided the empire into two parts.
Who divides the empire?
Diocletian divides the empire into a Greek East and Latin West. He takes the wealthier East and General Maximian takes the west.
Where is the capital moved to? What is is renamed?
Byzantium, renamed Constantinople
What happens after Constantine dies?
The East survives while the West falls.
What were three political causes of the decline of Rome?
Political office seen as burden, not reward
Military vs. politics
Civil war and division
Moving capital
What were three social causes of the decline of Rome?
Declining intrest in public affairs
Low confidence in empire
Little patriotism
Poor vs. rich
What were three economic causes of the decline of Rome?
Poor harvests
Little trade
No war plunder
Decrease in gold and silver
Rising taxes
Gap between rich and poor
What were three military causes of the decline of Rome?
European tribe threat
Little money for defense
Trouble recruiting
Little patriotism or loyalty
Who were the Huns?
Mongol nomads, they invaded other tribes. These tribes were pushed into Rome. They united under Attila and plunder 70 Roman cities.
Who is the last emperor of Rome?
Romulus Augustulus, a 14 year old boy, is sent into exile.
What is the Roman legacy?
Art, architecture, language, literature, engineering, law
Greek + Hellenistic + Roman =
Greco-Roman culture, classical civilization
Culture was adapted by Romans to convey ideas of ___
strength, permanance, and solidity
How is Roman sculpture different than Greek sculpture?
More realistic and less idealized, Practical for public education.
What is bas-relief?
Images projected from a flat background.
What are the four bases of Stoicism?
Virtue, duty, moderation, and endurance.
Who were the four important authors?
Virgil- Aenid, an epic of Aeneas
Ovid- Amores, for enjoyment and witty
Livy- history of Rome with legends
Tacitus- more accurate historian
What are Romanic Languages?
French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian, and English.
What parts of Roman architecture were and are used by other cultures?
Arches, domes, concrete, aqueducts, and roads.
What was the largest judicial contribution of the Romans?
Fair and equal standards of justice.
What are some contributions to law of the Romans?
Innocent until proven guilty
Punished for actions, not thoughts
Setting aside unfair laws
What did Jesus preach?
Ideas from Judaism- monotheism and Ten Commandments
God's relationship with humans is loving
God will end wickedness
What is contempt for God called?
Who is Peter?
The first apostle, he spreads the teachings of Jesus throughout Palestine and Syria with apostles.
What were the Epistles?
Letters to believers
What is the Diaspora?
Jews driven from homeland by Romans flee to Babylonia, the Arabian Desert, Syria, Egypt, Spain, Turkey, Palestine, and Poland
What are martyrs?
Persecuted Christians
Why did Christianity grow?
It embraced all peoples.
It gave hope to the powerless.
It appealed to those repelled by extravagances
of Rome.
It promised eternal life after death.
What does Constantine do in terms of Christianity?
It becomes approved by the empire.
Gives people freedom to choose religion.
Writes Nicene Creed.
What is the Nicine Creed?
Written by Constantine, it defines the basic beliefs of the Church.
Who were the Five Good Emperors?
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
When does Rome begin to decline?
During Marcus Aurelius' rule.
What were the Roman values?
Discipline, strength, loyalty, practicality
What are paterfamilias?
The father of the family- household power
What were powerful spirits called? What were they?
Numina were the guardian spirits of each family.
Who were the three bad emperors?
Caligula, Nero, and Domitian
Why is Caesar stabbed to death?
People feared losing power and thought he was a tyrant
What three supporters crushed Caesar's assassins?
Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus. Make up the 2nd Triumvirate.
What was the Jewish court and why did the Romans create it?
The Sahheadrin was the Roman's attempt to control the Jews.
What does Augustus do?
The ablest emperor, Augustus stablizes the empire, glorifies it, and creates a stable government system.
What two generals faught for power? Who won?
Gauis Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Sulla won
How do Julius Caesar earn loyalty and devotion?
Through his campaign against Gaul.
What places does Julius Caesar defeat?
Pompey in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt
What does Julius Caesar do?
Gives citizenship to people in provinces
Expands Senate
Helps poor by creating jobs
Starts colonies
Increases pay for soldiers
Who was the First Triumvirate?
Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey
What makes up their republic?
Democracy- citizens w/ right to vote
(only free born male citizens)
Monarchy- 2 coucils thate rule for one term
Aristocracy- Senate with legislative and admin
What were huge estates w/ captured slaves called?
What happens to the small farmers?
They can't compete with latifundia. After selling land to rich landowners, they become homeless and jobless.
Who attempted to help poor?
Tiberius and Gaius Graccius proposed reforms limiting size of estates and give land to poor. They are opposed by Senators and die.
What happens to loyalty?
Generals recruit the landless poor and promised them land. People faught for money and allegience to commanders came before loyalty to the republic. Thus, a politician with troops could take over.
Who claims to restore the republic but is actaully the unchallenged ruler?
What does Augustus mean?
exalted one
What is an imperator?
A supreme military commander
When is the peak of power? What is this called? What does it mean?
The Pax Romana (Roman Peace), from 27 BC to AD 180.
What is the most important industry?
What is the common coinage? What does it do?
The denarius makes trade easier.
What are the provinces?
Auxiliary, the people from them are not citizens but learn Roman customs. They become citizens when finish military service.
What leads to peace and prosperity in Rome?
Orderly transfer of power.
What was the immediate political cause of the decline of Rome?
Pressure from Huns
What was the immediate social cause of the decline of Rome?
Invasion by Germanic tribes and by Huns
What was the immediate economic cause of the decline of Rome?
Sack of Rome
What was the immediate military cause of the decline of Rome?
Conquest by invaders
What three groups originally inhabited Italy?
Latins- farmers, settlers that wandered Italy
Greeks- established ~50 colonies on coasts,
prosperous and comercially active-
bring Italy closer to Greece
Etruscans- natives metalworkers and
engineers, strongly influence Roman
Why is Rome strategetically located?
In Italy, on 7 rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River. Near center of Italian peninsula between Alps and southern tip of Italy.

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