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Gilded Age



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Fredrick Jackson Turner
1893 The Significance of the Frontier in American History (America needed a frontier)
vertical integration
controlled ALL aspects of industry
Dwight Lyman Moody
gospel of kindness & forgiveness ;; 1889 founded Moody Bible Institute in Chicago
"dry farming"
using shallow cultivation methods to plant & farm ;; over time, finely pulverized surface soil --> Dust Bowl
Mary Baker Eddy
founded Church of Christ ;; wrote Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1875)
Henry George
Progress and Poverty (graduated income tax)
Charlottle Perkins Gilman
Women and Economics
interlocking directorates
placed own men on boards of directors of rival competitors
Frank Norris
The Octopus
Apache Tribes
led by Geronimo ;; surrendered and became famers
Samuel Glidden
invented barbed wire
Joseph Pulitzer
New York World
J.P. Morgan
banking ;; used interlocking directorates
National Labor Union
1866 ;; 600,000 members ;; excluded Chinese, blacks, women ;; arbitration of industrial disputes & 8-hr workday
John Wesley Powell
warned that so little rain fell past the 100th meridan line
Hatch Act of 1887
federal funds for establishment of agricultural experiment stations
Carrie Chapman Catt
led women activists ;; General Federation of Women's Clubs
Walter Rauschenbusch & Washington Gladden
preached social "social gospel" ~ churches tackle burning social issues
Ida Wells
National Association of Colored Women
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species
Bessemer process
discovered by William Kelly ;; cold air blown on red-hot iron burned carbon deposits
gold hunters in Pike's Peak, Colorado
Helen Hunt Jackson
A Century of Dishonor (U.S. gov't dealings with Indians)
trusts (defensive alliances)
Andrew Carnegie
steel ;; used vertical integration
Wabash case
states couldn't regulate interstate commerce
Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe
1884 through Southwest deserts
Stephen Crane
Maggie: Girl of the Streets ;; The Red Badge of Courage
Colonel J.M. Chivington
1864 Sand Creek: massacred 400 Indians
Kate Chopin
The Awakening
Henry W. Grady
editor of Atlanta constitution ;; urged South to industrialize
Battle of Wounded Knee
federal troops stamped out "Ghost Dance" & marks end of Indian wars
American Federation of Labor
1886 founded by Samuel Gompers ;; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions ;; skilled laborers, willing to let unskilled fend for themselves, small minority
Women's Christian Temperance Union
led by Frances E. Willard & Carrie A. Nation
George Inness
leading landscapist
John Hopkins University
first high-grade graduate school
Knights of Labor
1869 led by Terence V. Powderly ;; barred liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, stockholders ;; economic & social reform
Wyoming Stock Growers' Associaton
breeders organization --> legends of cowboys
Lillian Ward
1893 Henry Street Settlement (NY)
Theodore Dreiser
Sister Carrie
Jack London
The Call of the Wild, The Iron Heel
American Protective Association (APA)
anti-foreign organization that went against new immigrants & tried to stop them
Union Pacific Railroad
1862 Omaha, Nebraska --> CA
Bret Harte
CA gold rush stories
"birds of passage"
immigrants who stayed in U.S. for short time & returned to Europe
United States Steel Corporation
1901 launched by Morgan ;; 1st billion dollar corporation in the world
Jane Addams
1889 founded Hull House ;; taught skills & knowledge, social reforms, women activism
Chautauqua Movement
1874 launched;; public lectures
Henry James
Daisy Miller, Portrait of a Lady
Mark Twain
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, The Gilded Age, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
Horatio Alger
virtue, honesty, industry rewarded by success
Edwin L. Godkin
New York Nation (1865)
"stock watering"
over-inflate worth of stocks & sold at huge profits
Phineas T. Barnum & James A. Bailey
1881 "Greatest show on Earth"
Henry H. Richardson
"Richardsonian" architecture
William Randolph Hearst
San Francisco Examiner
Booker T. Washington
ex-slave ;; headed industrial school in Tuskegee, Alabama ;; avoided social equality, Blacks helping themselves first before gaining more rights
Charles Dana Gibson
created Gibson Girl
John D. Rockefeller
oil ;; used horizontal integration ;; formed Standard Oil
Central Pacific Railroad
CA ;; backed by Big Four incl. Leland Stanford (ex-gov'r of CA) + Collis P. Huntington
Cornelius Vanderbilt
headed New York Central ;; financed western railroads
Victoria Woodhull & Tennessee Chaflin
Woodull and Claflin's Weekly
General Lewis Wallace
Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ
Nez Perce Indians
revolted when gold hunters made gov't shrink reservation by 90%
methods of corporation to discourage unions
hiring strikebreakers, asked courts to cease, bring in troops, "lockouts", "ironclad oaths", "yellow dog contracts", blacklists
James Buchanan Duke
American Tobacco Company ;; DUKE UNIVERSITY
Influences of Railroads
stitched nation together, huge market, jobs, industrialization of America, mining & agriculture in west
Causes for Indian subdue
railroad, white man's diseases, extermination of buffalo, wars, loss of land to white settlement
Paul Laurence Dunbar & Charles W. Chesnutt
black writers who used black dialect
Farmer's Alliance
late 1870s ;; aimed at land owners, ignored tenant farmers, excluded blacks ;; agreed on nationalization of railroads, abolition of national banks, graduated income tax, federal sub-treasury
Anthony Comstock
war on the "immoral"
James Whistler & John Singer Sargent
went to Europe to study art
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange)
1867 founded by Oliver H. Kelley ;; improved lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, fraternal activitie
Great Northern
James J. Hill ;; Duluth --> Seattle
Winslow Homer
most famous and greatest painter
Augustus Saint-Gaudens
made Robert Gould Savo Memorial
Southern Pacific
1884 New Orleans --> San Francisco
James Naismith
1891 invented basketball
Emily Dickinson
poet ;; poems published after death
Homestead Act of 1862
160 acres of land in return for living on land for 5 yrs, improving it, paying nominal fee of $30 ; or after 6 months, get land for $1.25/acre
Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass
Greenback Labor Party
attracted farmers ;; elected 14 Congress members ;; ran General James B. Weaver
George Washington Carver
student of B.T. Washington ;; found ways of uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, soybeans
Marry Cassatt
portraits of women & children
Reverend Russell Conwell
"Acres of Diamonds" speech
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
banned rebates, pools, required railroads to openly publish rates & forbade discrimination against shippers, banned charging more for short haul than long one ;; set up Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Florence Kelley
fought for protection of women workers & against child labor
People's Party (Populist Party)
led by Ignatius Donnelly & Mary Elizabeth Lease (both spoke against banks & railroads)
Morrill Act of 1862
generous grant of public lands to states in support of education
Jay Gould
embezzled stocks from Erie, Kansas Pacific, Union Pacific, Texas and Pacific railroad companies
"safety valve theory"
unemployed go West & become farmers
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
dissolved legal entities of all tribes but if Indians were "good" (farmers), they could get full U.S. citizenship in 25 yrs + full title to holdings
college for women
Dr. Charles W. Eliot
president of Harvard
Thomas Eakins
realist painter
Louis Pasteurs & Joseph Lister
improved medical science and health
Edward Bellamy
Looking Backward (1888)
Louis Sullivan
architect ;; skyscrapers (1885 1st in Chicago)
"dime novels"
Wild West & other romantic settings
Treaty of Fort Laramie
gov't abandoned Bozeman Trail
yellow journalism
wild & fantastic stories on sex, scandal...
Northern Pacific Railroad
1883 Lake Superior --> Puget Sound
"Wild West" shows
"Buffalo Bill" Cody & Annie Oakley
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
forbade combinations in restraint of trade without distinction of "good" or "bad" trusts
Haymarket Square
May 4, 1886 ;; Chicago police vs. Knights ;; dynamite bomb killed several dozen ;; 8 anarchists arrested
Thomas Edison
inventor of electric light bulb, phonograph...
National American Suffrage Association
1890 led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
Germans & western Europeans looked down upon new Slavs & Baltics ;; "native" Americans blamed new immigrants for degration of urban gov't
W.E.B. Du Bois
first black to get Ph.D. from Harvard ;; founded National Association for Advancement of Colored People (1910)
William Dean Howells
editor-in-chief of Atlantic Monthly
Alexander Graham Bell
inventor of telephone
Eli Whitney
inventor of cotton gin
Battle of Little Big Horn
Crazy Horse and Sioux defeated Custers' 7th cavalry
"Long Drive"
Texas cowboys herded cattle to railroad teminals in Kansas
William James
Principles of Psychology (1890), The Will to Believe (1897), Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), *Pragmatism (1907)
horizontal integration
allied with competitors to monopolize given market (trusts)
Clara Burton
1881 American Red Cross
Associated Press
established in 1840s ;; helped to offset some bad journalism
Cardinal Gibbons
preached American unity

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