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Bio Exam 4


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Land plants evolved from?    
green algae
the closest living relatives to land plants?
What are the four key traits between land plants and charophyceans?

1. Rose shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis

2. Peroxisome enzymes

3. Structure of flagellated sperm

4. Formation of a phragmoplast 

non charophycean algae use what sort of arrays for cellulose synthesis?
linear arrays of proteins
charophycean algae use what sort of arrays for cellulose synthesis?
rose shaped complexes
what is the prupose of peroxisome enzymes
they help minimize the loss of organic products as a result of photresperitation.
what is a phragmoplast?
an alignment of cytoskeletal elemens and golgi vesicles around the midline of a dividing cell.
what is sporopollenin?
a layer of durable polymer that prevents exposed zygotes from dying out in charophyceans.
what defines the plant kingdom
embryophytes(plants with embryos)
covering consisting of polyesters and waxes that prevents dehydration.
what are the five key traits that separate land plants from charophycaens?

1.apical meristems

2. alternation of generations

3. walled spores produced in sporangia

4. multicellular gametangia

5. multicellular dependent embryos 

what are secondary compounds?
products of secondary metabolic pathways that aid in a plants survival. e.g. alkaloids and tanins
what are apical meristems?
regions of cell division at the tips of shoots and roots. The cells specialize later on like stem cells.
what are the two multicellular body forms that make up the alternation of generations in plants?

1. Gametophyte

2. Sporophyte 

Are the cells of the gametophyte haploid or diploid?
haploid (single set of chromosomes.
how is the gametophyte formed?
By mytosis of a haploid gamete.
what is the purpose of the sporophyte?
to produce spores.
Is the sporophyte haploid or diploid?
diploid(two sets of chromosomes)
what are the spore producing organs within the sporophyte?
what are sporocytes
spore mother cells.
what is unique about plant spores
sporopollenin enriched walls
what are the names of the female gametangia?
what are the names of the male gametangia?
what are placental transfer cells
cells that help transfer nutrients to the plant embryo while it is in the archegonia.
what is vascular tissues?
tissue that transports water and nutrients through the plant body.
what are vascular plants?
plants that contain vascular tissue.
Non vascular plants are calle?
ferns are a part of which clade?
club mosses are a part of which clade?
seedless vascular plants consist of which two clade?
lycophytes and pterophytes.
seed plants can be divided into what two groups?

1. Gymnosperms

2. Angiosperms 

What is unique about Gymnosperms.
Their seeds are not enclosed in chambers.
what is unique about Angiosperms.
Their seeds are enclosed in chambers.
Bryophytes consist of which three phyla?

1. Hepatophyta

2. Anthecerophyta

3. Bryophyta 

in bryophytes which stage is larger and longer living, sporophytes or gametophytes.

What are protonema?
a mass of one cell thick filaments produced by a germinating moss spore.
what is a gametophore
the second half of a moss gametophyte, it produces gametes.
what two parts make up the body of a moss gametophyte.

1. Gametophore

2. protonema 

what are rhizoids?
long tubular single cells that anchor bryophyte gametophytes.
what three parts does the bryophyte sporophyte consist of.

1. foot

2. seta

3. capsule


What is plasticity?
The ability of an organism to mold its self in response to the local environment.
What is morphology  
External form.
What are the three basic plant organs?
Roots, stems and leaves
what is the function of the root system
anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals, and store organic nutrients
what does the taproot develop from
embryonic foot
what are lateral roots
branch roots that come from the taproot
describe a fibrous root system
no taproot, many small roots grow from the stem each with its own lateral roots.
roots arising from the stem are called?
seedless vascular plants and monocots have which type of root system.
Fibrous root system
eudicots and gymnospores have which type of root system?
taproot system
what is root hair
extension of root epidermal cell, increases surface area, nutrient absorbtion, water absorption.
The stem system consists of ?
An alternating system of nodes and internodes.
what are nodes?
the points at which leaves are attached.
what are internodes?
stem segments between nodes.
What is an auillary bud
structure located between leaf and stem that has the potential to form a lateral shoot.
What is apical dominance
tendency for the terminal bud to grow while the auxillary buds are dormant. Makes the plant move towards light.
What is the purpose of a leaf
what two parts does the leaf typically consist of?

1. Blade

2. Petiole(stalk) 

monicots have what sort of leaf veins?
eudicots have what sort of leaf veins?
what is the dermal tissue system
equivalent of our skin.
the dermal tissue in non woody plants is called the
the in woody plants old regios of the epidermis are replaced by?
the two vascular tissues are?

1. Xylem

2. Phloem 

what is the purpose of xylem
convey water and minerals up from the roots to the shoots
what is the purpose of phloem
transport organic nutrients such as sugars from where they are made to where they are needed.
the vascular tissue of a root or stem is called the ?
Tissues that arent part of the dermal or vascular systems are part of?
the ground tissue system.
ground tissue that is internal to vascular tissue is called?
ground tissue that is external to vascular tissue is called
describe parenchyma cells
large central vacuole, perform most of the metabolic functions of the plant, can devide and differenciate under special conditions.
describe collenchyma cells
help support young parts of the plant shoot, remain living and flexible.
describe sclerenchyma cells

supporting elements, thick secondary walls, mature cells cant elongate.

what are the two types of sclerenchyma cells?

1. sclerids

2. fibers 

what is the function of sclerids
very thick secondary walls that impart hardness
what are the two types of water conducting cells?

1. tracheids

2. vessel elements 

what is the purpose of sieve tube members
transport sugars and nutrients
define indeterminate growth
the plant never stops growing
leaves undergo what type of growth
determinate growth(they stop growing)
How long do annuals live
a year of less
how long do biennials live
roughly two years
how long do perrenials live
till something kills them
apical meristems enable what type of growth
primary growth(roots and shoots extend in length)
lateral meristems enable what type of growth
secondary growth(growth in thickness)
what are the two types of lateral meristems

1. vascular cambrium

2. cork cambrium

what is the function of vascular cambrium
adds layers of vascular tissue (secondary xylem and phloem)
what is the purpose of cork cambrium
replaces epidermis with peridem
what are initials
cells that stay in the meristem as sources of new cells
what are derivatives
cells that are displaced from the meristem and become specialized.
what is the purpose of the root cap
protect the apical meristem during root growth
what are the three zones of cells behind the root tip

1. zone of cell division

2. elongation

3. maturation 

in roots the stele is typically a ?
vascular cylinder
what is the purpose of cells within the ground tissues of roots
store nutrients and absorb minerals
what is the endodermis
cylinder one cell thick that divides the vascular cylinder from the rest of the root.
lateral roots arise from the?
where is the pericycle located?
outermost cell layer in the vascular cylinder
soil is a source of?  
mineral nutrients
80 - 90 % of a plant is made up of         
the bulk of a plants organic material comes from  
CO2 absorbed from air
what is an essential element  
a chemical element needed to complete a life cycle
how many essential elements are there?  
essential elements that are required in large amounts are  
macro nutrients
define micro nutrients  
nutrients needed in very small amounts, act as cofactors
what are the nine macro nutrients?
carbo, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, dulfur, potassium, calcium, magnesium
what type of tissue can draw more nutrients when the plant is in short supply  
younger tissue
what is humus?
remains of decaying organisms
topsoil is a mix of?
rock fragments, living organisms, humus
distinct soil layers are known as
most fertile soils are usually?
a loam consist of ?
equal amounts of sand silt and clay
what charge of particles are more easily drained from the soil
describe cation exchange
H= displace other cations from the soil allowing them to be absorbed by the plant
agriculture does what to soil?
depletes its mineral content
what does the NPK code define
the ratios of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium in fertilizer
irrigation in arid regions can cause what problem
makes soil salty
the process of using plants to clean up waste in unusable soil is known as?
what mineral has the greatest effect on plant growth?
plants can only absorb nitrogen as
ammonium or nitrate
what is nitrogen fixation
when bacteria convert N2 to NH3
nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by
what are nodules?
swellings on the plant where it is infected with nitrogen converting bacteria.
how do legumes form symbiosis with only certain species of rhizobium bacteria
by the structure of the flavanoids it emits
describe crop rotation
a legume is planted after a non legume to replace nitrogen by nitrogen fixation
what are mycorrhizae
a mixture of roots and fungus that is benefitial
what are the two types of mycorrhizae

1. ectomicorrhizae

2. endomicorrhizae 

what is the the defining characteristic of ectomicorrhizae
they from a dense mantle over the roots
in angiosperms, which generation is dominant
angiosperms have what reproductive feature
are flowers determinate or indeterminate
what are the four floral organs

1. sepals

2. petals

3. stamens

4. carpels 

what do the floral organs attach to
what do sepals do
enclose and protect the floral bud before it opens
what is the anther
structure at the end of the stamen, produces pollen
what are the two parts of the stamen

1. filament

2. anther 

what are the three parts of the carpel

1. ovary

2. style

2. stigma 

if the ovary is above the stamens it is
if the ovary is below the stamens it is
flowers with only functional stamen are called
flowers with only functional carpels are called
plants with both carpellate and staminate flowers on the same plant are
plants with both carpellate and staminate flowers on the different plants are
when a microspore undergoes mytosis it generates what two cells?

1. generative cell

2. tube cell


what is self incompatibility
a biochemical mechanism that prevents a plant from fertilizing itself
what is a microphyle
gap in the ovary that the pollen tube enters
what is the endosperm
food storing tissue of the seed
a simple fruit is one that deveolps from
a single carpel
an aggregate fruit is one that develops from
multiple carpels
what is imbibtion
when the germinating seed takes up water
what is the radicle
the embryonic root
what is vegatative reproduction
asexual reproduction of a plant
what is fragmentation
when part of a plant is hacked off and grows into a new plant
what is apomix
the asexual production of seeds
what is de-etiolation
when the plant switches from its growing underground strategy to its growing above ground strategy.
what are transcription factors
things that bind directly to dna and effect their transcription by rna
what is a tropism
a response the results in the curvature of a plant
what is auxin
idoleacetic acid, causes elongation of coleoptiles
what do expansins do
break the connections between cllulose microfibrills so that the cell can elongate
what do cytokins do
promote cell division
what do gibberellins do
promote stem elongation, fruit growth, and seed germination
what do brassinosteroids do
similar to auxin, promote elongation
what does abscisic acid(ABA) do
slow growth
when is ethylene produced
in response to stress or drought
what is vernalization
treatment with cold to induce flowering
what is an abiotic stress
a non living stress
what is a biotic stress
a living stress

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