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Civilization class


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Cape of Good Hope
the bottom tip of Africa
Settlement Colonies
In the Southern United States and the Caribbean. These were plantations for indigo, tobacco, and sugar. African slaves were used for labor at these plantations.
used human cadavers for his own research and to teach anatomy. He wrote, "On the Fabric of the Human Body" this book proclaimed that the heart was the hub of human existence
Pizarro and the Inca
1536 = Spaniard explorer who conquered the Inca in the same way that Cortes conquered the Aztec. Quipu a form of communication by the Incas using ropes of different lengths and color.
early 1400's) = the Portuguese began to explore islands off of their coast because they needed more farm land. Portugal had also traveled along the coast of Africa and had established small trading posts. They traded spices, gold, Ivory and slaves.
Spain was interested in getting into the spice trade. Columbus was a northern Italian unemployed sailor. He said another way of getting to the India instead of going around Africa was to go west and you would eventually run into the Middle East. The Portuguese thought Columbus was crazy and turned him down. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain (along with others) financed his voyage. After a long voyage the crew was ready to mutiny so he made a deal with his men to give him a few more days before turning back. They hit land a few days later on the Hispaniola and encountered Native Americans cans who lived on the islands. They tried to trade with the natives but the natives wanted nothing to do with Columbus and his men. Columbus was convinced that he had found some unknown islands in Asia. He took one of natives back to Spain with him. Columbus returned back to the island and realized these natives had gold and silver. The Spanish forced the Native Americans to locate and produce gold and silver. This made the Native Americans mad so they revolted. The Spaniards roasted the revolutionaries alive. Columbus was arrested for brutality when he returned to Spain. He was later released and went on more explorations.
Starry Messenger
Galileo's discoveries were published in a book called "The Starry Messenger".
mathematics and mechanics when he ran out of money and could not continue school he was hired by the university as an instructor. He believed truth was found in the world not in books. Because of this belief he was forced to resign from teaching at the university. He went to another university and started teaching the philosophy of Copernicus. He invented the first astronomical telescope which could magnify things 1,000 times. He made some important discoveries such as the Earth's moon had a material surface; he discovered the moons of Jupiter, and sunspots on the sun. He became a celebrity and moved to Rome to expand on the Copernicus system. Galileo was suppressed by the Catholic Church.
Middle Passage
the journey to transport slaves from Africa to the colonies of the New World. Ships were overcrowded; disease was rampant, very inhumane conditions.
believed the liver was the hub of human existence. It kept the four humors in check (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile)
Settlement Colonies
France and Britain started exploring and conquering the new world. They established colonies in the Americas. The Spanish sent back natural resources such as sugar and silver and this made Spain the wealthiest nation on earth. The Dutch started to colonize in the Dutch East Indies. (Indonesia)
The Dialogue
(Dialogue on the Two Great World Systems) about his findings but Galileo had to say the book was theory not fact so he would not offend the Catholic Church. The Vatican approved the publication of the book and it caused an immediate stir. One of the characters in the book was dumb and Urban VIII thought the dumb character was based on him. The pope convicted Galileo of heresy. In this book he proved the theory on tides. He also wrote the book as a conversation between three people. Sagredo-the narrator, Salviati the new thinker (Galileo's point of view) and Simpliccsio- old catholic a moron.
Cortes and the Aztecs
The Aztec Civilization was an empire with over 1,000,000 people. The Aztecs were Imperialists themselves; they dominated over 400 other tribes. Aztec religion believed in Gods of nature, sun gods, agriculture gods, etc... Captives from battle were sacrificed to the Gods.Cortes showed up on the coast of Mexico with 600 soldiers. When he arrived he burned his ships to motivate his soldiers. Cortes landed in Mexico in 1531 and by 1550 Cortes had defeated the Aztec Empire. He accomplished this with guns, horses, steel swords and armor, and by getting people from other tribes to join his army. The biggest reason for the defeat was that Europeans carried many diseases that wiped out populations of the new world. New world agriculture had developed without domesticated animals and this is why the Native American's were susceptible to diseases. 1492 to 1800 about Ninety percent of the population died from disease.
Constantinople - 1453
= Italians were trading with the Byzantine Empire which was only Constantinople. Constantinople fell and the trade with the Italians dried up in 1453. This is a turning point in history because Europe's trade roots with the Eastern trade were cut because the Muslims blocked it.
1500's =from Poland who went to a University in Northern Italy. He became a monk but in his spare time he studied astronomy. He read books by Eritrcus of Samos, His book was called "Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" but he did not publish it because he did not want to cause controversy with the church. He believed the planets revolved around the sun and the moon revolved around the earth in a perfect circle. When he died the Catholic Church accepted his book but the Protestant Church was outraged because it was contradictory to a biblical verse. (and the sun stood still)
Urban VIII
Pope who thought Galileo was a genius. Urban VIII said Galileo could begin his research again and write a book. He told Galileo that in his book he must state that the book is a theory not a fact
Spice Trade
The Portuguese found that trade was more lucrative than farming. The Africans had some spices, gold, ivory and slaves. The Portuguese took slaves back to Portugal. ***see Vasco Da Gama ***
The English would send people to the New World to be fruitful and multiply and be extensions of the mother country. (this was the best described form of colonization.
Bartolommeo De Las Cases
A Spaniard who sailed with Columbus he wrote about the atrocities that were done on the natives.
the first person to challenge Galen. He was an Italian anatomy teacher and practicing doctor who believed disease was caused by a foreign chemical in the body. He also believed if you had a chemical condition it could be cured by giving you more of the same chemical.
wrote the book "On the Motion of the Heart and Blood" in 1628. He believed the circulation of the blood through the body, and by 1650 no one believed in Galen's theory.
Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal who saw the importance of exploration and navigation. He opened up the first school for navigators where they trained explorers/navigators. The Portuguese became very good at trading.
Counter - Reformation
late 1500's - early 1600's When the protestants broke away from the Catholic Church they stopped paying money to the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church decided to stick by their doctrine and intensify it by making relics more important, glorified popes even more, built bigger churches.
Triangular Trade
colonies in the new world (Cuba, Jamaica in the Caribbean) would produce the raw materials. The raw material would go back to the Mother Country and the European countries would take the raw material and turn it into finished goods. The some of the finished goods would be sent to Africa to be traded for human slaves. Slaves were captured in battle or sold by their tribal chiefs to the Europeans. Europeans took the slaves back to the colonies of the New World.
Vasco Da Gama
A Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and all the way to India. He was able to reestablish the spice trade with India (black pepper, cumin, curry, etc...) thus making Portugal very rich. Antonio Diaz was the first to try sailing around the cape of Good Hope, but his crew forced him to return
his theory was similar to Aristotle except he believed the planets did a loop-de-loop in orbit (epicycles).
=(working at same time as Galileo) from Czech Republic who believed planets orbit in Ellipses with the sun at one focus of the ellipse, planets cover equal area in equal time (planets move at different speeds relative to their distance from the sun). Galileo never adopted Kepler's theories.
an astronomer who believed the planets orbit around the Earth in a perfect circle and there was a sphere of fixed stars. He did not know how to explain how everything moved in space. (the prime mover) this was compatible with the church theory of a prime mover so the church accepted his theory. During the Medieval period in Europe the Catholic Church accepted Aristotle's theory.
New Monarchies
= Monarchies that were modernizing. Only larger or wealthy states such as England, France and Spain could produce Colonial Empires. The age of the 100 year war ended the reign of the Mounted Knights. Gunpowder had reached Europe and the Europeans were good at making cannons, firearms, and longbows. This made the knight obsolete and the French nobility almost wiped out. Kings started to shift power from their old nobles to their own hands. Kings had expensive large armies of foot soldiers that consisted of ordinary citizens. The kings modernized their states to collect taxes (modernized taxation) to support the armies. The kings tried to make the religion, linguistics, and geography of their kingdoms homogeneous. The pope gave the Spanish royal family permission to begin the Spanish Inquisition where non-believers (Jews) were tortured to convert them to Christianity. These new monarchies expanded out of Europe for the following reasons: trade and commerce, the extension of their religion, the extension of power and glory. There were changes in sails and ships that made the ships sail faster. The compass had made its way to Europe that helped with navigation. Steel had also found its way to Europe. Their motivation for these changes was: (1) trade and commerce. (2) Extend religion (more money for the church) (3) extension of power and glory. (4) the use of steal, as weapon and in shipping.
The Spanish would get a grant from the king for lands in the new world. They would establish a plantation that produced natural resources like cocoa, sugar, gold or silver. In the Encomienda system the Spanish forced natives to work on these plantations.

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