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Botany 2.6


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___ different amino acids are used to make protein. Humans can make ___.
Essential Amino Acids (9)
Histidine, Lysine, Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Leucine, Valine, Methionine.
Single sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose)
Sucrose (glucose+ fructose- table sugar), Maltose (glucose+glucose- starch breakdown), Lactose (glucose + galactose-milk sugar).
cellulose (plant cell walls -most common cell on earth), starch (storage carb in plant), glycogen (transport carbs in animals), Fiber (various types of polysacs).
Difference between cellulose and starch.
They are both chains of glucose but they link different hus cellulose is insoluable and starch is soluable.
Ca't digest it but it helps move things through our intestines. Insoluable= cellulose(paper) and lignin(wood). soluable= pectin, gums.
Fats & oils (Lipids)
organic molecules insoluable in water.
Types of Fats and Oils
Triglycerides (storage fats), Steroids (precursors to hormones, membrane stability, etc.), Membrane lipids (phospholipids).
Saturated Fats
Solid at room temperature (lard), "straight".
Unsaturated Fats
liquid at room temperature (oil), "kinky".
Major and Trace Minerals
Minerals that plants take in and we must consume to recieve them.
Fat-soluable vitamins
can cross into cells easily/ accumulate in fat tissue
Water-soluable vitamins
cannot get into cells as easily
Based on archeological evidence, humans have existed for ___ years.
Until ___ years ago, humans relied on ___ for food.
10,000; hunting and gathering
Early plant breeders did simple things like (2)
1. Select seeds from largest or best producing plants for next year. 2. Then controlled breeding led to new types of plants
Many or most domesticated plants are (4)
1.Monoculture 2.Low genetic diversity 3. Can't reproduce on their own 4. Need human assistance to exist
Problems of Agriculture (5)
1.Sedentism 2. Poor diet (little variety) 3. Dependence on monoculture which can be whipped out quickly 4.Excessive resources used 5.Control of food by a few groups.

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