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Chapter 14: Forging the National Economy


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Market economy
a national network of industry and commerce
Factory system
perfected a series of machines for the mass produciton of textiles, multiplied the power of human muscles some ten thousandfold and ushered in this
Eli Whitney
born in Massachusetts. He was a mechanical genius that graduated from Yale. After college he traveled to Georgia to be a tutor while preparing for the law. While in Georgia he was told that the South would make a lot of money if someone could invent a machine to separate the seed from cotton. In 1793, within ten days of being told this, Whitney had constructed a rough machine fifty times more effective than the handpicking process, called the cotton gin.
National (Cumberland) Road
It went from Cumberland, in western Maryland, to Illinois. Its construction was halted during the War of 1812, but the road was finished in 1852 by the federal government.
Industrial revolution
transformation in agriculture production and in the methods of transportation and communication.
Deere's Steel Plow
invented by John Deere,broke virgin soil, sharp and effective- light enough to be pulled by horses and not oxen.
Ecological imperialism
aggressive and often heedless exploitation of the West's natural bounty
Dewitt Clinton
governor of New York who lead the building of the Erie Canal that connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River in 1825; the canal lowered shipping prices and decreased passenger transit time
Lancaster Turnpike
hard-surfaced highway that ran from Philadelphia to Lancaster; drivers had to pay a toll to use it.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Supreme Court ruling said that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were honorable and peaceful.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Samuel Slater
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
Robert Fulton
A painter/ engineer who got financial backing to build a powerful steam engine (Clermont). Skeptics called it ''Fulton's Folly''. But in 1807 the boat made the 150 mile run from New York City up the Hudson River to Albany in 32 hours. Within a few years Fulton changed all of America's navigable streams into two-way arteries and forever changed the way the West and the South could transport their goods.
The Clermont
powerful steam engine in a vessel created by Fulton
George Caitlin
painter and student of Native American life who was among the first Americans to advocate the preservation of nature; proposed the idea of a national park
Know-Nothing Party
the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner. agitated for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers. "nativists"
Samuel Morse
he invented the telegraph which tightened the sinews of an increasingly complex business world.
Rendezvous system
fur trapping empire. Each summer traders ventured from St. Louis to a verdant Rocky Mountain valley, and waited there for trappers and Indians to arrive with beaver pelts to swap for manufactured goods from the East. Trade lasted for two decades.
Isaac Singer
he perfected the sewing machine which gave a boost to northern industrialization.
McCormick's Mower-Reaper
Cyrus McCormick revolutionized the farming industry by inventing the mechanical reaper. He later improved upon it and patented it in 1834. He then started a company that manufactured this reaper and sold it on the market
The Savannah
pioneer American steamer
Molly Maguires
shadowy Irish miners' union that rocked the Penn. coal districts in the 1860s and 1870s
Cult of domesticity
a widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker
Elias Howe
invented the sewing machine in 1846

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