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APHG Unit 3


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A term describing the relatively equal exchange of cultural outlooks and ways of life between two culture groups; it suggests more extensive cross-cultural influences than acculturation.
Reverse Reconstruction
To reverse any reconstruction attempted
Sacred Spaces
Places sacred to certain groups
Ethnic Group
People sharing a distinctive culture, frequently based on common national origin, religion, language or race.
A Spanish-speaking quarter in a town or city (especially in the United States)
Cultural Hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
Standard Language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
Religious journeys to the Holy Land.
Social Destination
The best place for social contact
Multilingual States
Countries in which more than one language is in use
Language Families/Groups
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Linguistic Refugee Area
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable enviornmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived
Renfrew Hypothesis
Three areas in and around fertile crescent, gave rise to three language families.
Agriculture Theory
With increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
Traditional Religions
Special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, their unique identity with localized culture groups not yet fully absorbed into modern society, and their close ties to nature.
Cultural modification or change that results when one culture group or individual adopts traits of a sominant or host society; cultural development or change through borrowing.
Conquest Theory
Theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
Orthodox Religions
A strand within most major religions that emphasizes purity of faith and is not open to blending with other religions
Ethnic Homelands
A sizeable area inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of political and social control over it.
An inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion
Cultural Diffusion
The spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Popular Culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Vernacular Culture Region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identy.
Interfaith Boundaries
Boundaries between the major religions
Cultural Determinism
The idea that a culture largely determines what a person can and cannot become
Practice routinely followed by a group of people
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizers language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Language Convergence
Collapsing of two languages into one.
The belief in government by divine guidance
Culture Complex
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
Indigenous Technical Knowledge
Highly localized knowledge about enviromental conditions and sustainable land-use practices
Knowing only one language
Enviornmental Perception
The concept that people of different cultures will differenly observe and interpret their enviornments
The dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Material Culture
The concrete, tangible objects of a culture ex) clothes, buildings
Universalizing Religions
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Boundaries that seperate regions in which different language usages predominate
Ethnic Island
A small ethnic area in the rural countryside; sometimes called a "folk island"
Indigenous Culture
A culture group that constitutes the original inhabitants of a territory, distinct from the dominant national culture, which is often derived from colonial occupation.
Attribution of soul to inanimate objects
The loss of uniqueness of a place
Shatter Belts
A zone of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups
Syncretic Relions
Religions, or stands within religions, that combine elements of two or more belief systems
Speaking several tongues.
Pidgin Language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Monotheistic Religions
Belief in one god
Culture Trait
A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior.
The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society of culture.
Cultural Nationalism
An effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization, especially the penetrating influence of U.S. culture
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collective of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
Nonmaterial Culture
Human creations, such as values, norms, knowledge, systems of government, language, and so on, that are not embodied in physical objects
Language Branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocab, spelling, and pronunciation
Groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture.
Ethnic Neighborhood
A voluntary community where people of like origin reside by choice
Ethnic Cleansing
Process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Ethnic Enclave
A small area occupied by a distinctive minority culture
A strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
Cultural Lag
When a group is unresponsive to innovations or changes in their environment
Proselytic Religions
Want to convert everyone. Ex) christianity
A person who does not acknowledge your God
Lingua Franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
Language Divergence
This type of language can form where a lack of spatial interation among speakers of a language breaks the language into dialects and then continued isolation divided the language into discrete languages
Ethic Religion
Related to a certain ethnicity, don't seek converts. Ex) judaism.
Gaia Hypothesis
The idea that Earth is a living system
Polytheistic Relgions
Belief in many gods
The fact or character attributed to nature or natural processes of being directed toward an end or shaped by a purpose
Intrafaith Boundaries
The boundaries within a single major faith
Customary behaviors associated with food preparation and comsumption
The Study of the influence of religious belief on habitat modification
Adaptive Strategy
The unique way in which each culture uses it's particular physical environment; Those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life - Food, clothing, shelter, and defense
Laws in South Africa that physically seperated different races into different geographic areas.
Folk Culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Monolingual States
Countries in which only one language is spoken
Maladaptive Diffusion
Diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)
Isolated Language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
people who work to spread their religious beliefs
Place name
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Ethnic Substrate
Regional cultural distinctiveness that remains following the assimilation of an ethnic homeland
Language Replacement
Replacing a language
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Generic Toponyms
The desriptive part of many place names, often repeated throughout a culture area
Cultural Simplification
The process by which immigrant ethnic groups lose certain aspects of their traditional culture in the process of settling overseas, creating a new culture that is less complex than the old.
Cultural Imperialism
Spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others or imposition on other cultures which it modifies, replaces, or destroys.
Culture Realm
A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems; a major world area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.
Conservative beliefs in the Bible and that it should be literally believed and applied
Official Language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Built Environment
The part of the physical landscape that represent material culture; the buildings, roads, bridges, and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape
A doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
Heirarchial Religions
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
Cultural Preadaptation
A complex of adaptive traits and skills possessed in advance of migration by a group, giving them survival ability and competitive advantage in occupying the new environment
Convergence Hypothesis
A biased approach to the study of management, which assumes that principles of good management are universal, and that ones that work well in the United States will apply equally well in other nations.
Contact Conversion
The Spread of Religious Beliefs by Personal Contact
A pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition
Culture Region
Includes many different counties that have certain traits in common

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