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History Final


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Korean War
The conflict that followed the crossing of the 38th parallel by the North Korean Forces. Truman viewed this conflict as a test case for his containment policy.
Walter Reed
United States physician who proved that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes (1851-1902)
35th President elected in 1960; assassinated in 1963 in Dallas
Black Muslims
Africans adopted muslim names. movement toward Islam., nation of islam
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
site of the first atomic bomb dropping on Japan
President Bush
Vice President under Reagan and 41st President of the United States (born in 1924)
Ku Klux Klan
Anti black, jews, catholics, aliens. Grew in rural areas and small towns rapidly in 20s. Some political success, but fell apart because of violence, sex scandals among leaders, misuse of money. Virtually disappeared by end of decade but never completely gone
Authoritative stoppage of foreign commerce or of any special trade.
reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way government works
Became President when FDR died; won the closest re-election in history, defeating Dewey; dropped the atomic bomb on Japan;
Great Depression
a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929. began in the United States and quickly spread to Europe and every part of the world, with devastating effects in both then industrialized countries and those which exported raw materials. International trade declined sharply, as did personal incomes.
Henry Kessinger
secretary of state. shuttle diplomacynegotiated trade with China
A. Mitchell Palmer
Wilson's attroney general that believed the whole country was treatened by communist aka the red scare
nations fighting against Germany: US, Britian, Australia, S. Africa, Holland, France, Canada, New Zealand, Beligum, Norway, Greece. Poland and China
United Nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
President of the USA for 12 years (1933-1945). Started the New Deal, and passed a series of neutrality acts that prevented the USA from taking sides in any European wars. However, Roosevelt was convinced that the neutrality acts actually encouraged Axis aggression and wanted the acts repealed.
Pearl Harbor
was a preventive attack on the United States Pacific Fleet base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii by the Empire of Japan's Imperial Japanese Navy, on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941 resulting in the United States becoming involved in WWII. Two aerial attack waves, totaling 353 aircraft, were launched from six Japanese aircraft carriers, with the intention of reducing or eliminating the United State's military power in the Pacific.
Robert Kennedy
american politician; attorney general during brothers presidency and was assassinated during his bid for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination
Brown vs. Board of Education
brown charged school of violation lyndas rights by denying admission to a white school
Henry Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany
Elijah Muhammad
taught that allah would bring a "black nation" that was a union among all nonwhite people. leader of the black muslims
Geneva conference
conference where representatives from many countries met to work out a peace agreement and arrange for Indochian's future, split the nation of Vietnam roughly in half along the seventeenth parallel., and established a shaky peace in the nation of Laos.
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German field marshal noted for brilliant generalship in North Africa during World War II (1891-1944)
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Progressive Era
time at the turn of the 20th century in which groups sought to reform America economically, socially, and politically
civil rights movement
African Americans sought equality before the law and protection of their rights. Black activists, often affiliated with church groups, offered passive resistance to unjust civil laws.
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof)
New Deal
The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Stock Market Crash
" black tuesday" flooded with investments (particularly those buying "on margin, or paying a fraction of the total price or a transaction and the broker lending the trader the rest), the Stock Market crashed after those who bought on margin were forced to either put up more money or sell their stock, choosing to sell. Thousands of people sold their stocks at once, and a financial panic ensued.
Atomic Bomb
a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element like uranium 235 or plutonium 239)
Ronald Regan
the president of the US at the end of the cold war who encouraged Americans to mistrust communists, became president after Jimmy Carter and was once a former actor and governor of California
(finance) the net sales minus the cost of goods and services sold
American general; he commanded U.S. troops in the South Pacific during World War II; later he commanded UN forces in the Korean War; also drove the Bonus Marchers out of DC
Presidental Succession Act
lists the people that will become the president if the president is unable to fulfill his presidental duties
civil rights movement
African Americans sought equality before the law and protection of their rights. Black activists, often affiliated with church groups, offered passive resistance to unjust civil laws.
an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy
Women's rights
right to vote
The 39th President of the United States (1977-1981), who is credited with establishing energy-conservation measures, concluding the Panama Canal treaties (1978), and negotiating the Camp David accords between Egypt and Israel (1979). He won the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize.
38th parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Yalta Conference
"The Big Three", when Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in February of '45, FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Caesar Chavez
Farm worker movement
Berlin Wall
symbolized communism and division of Germany separated communist and non-communist berlin
Battle of the Bulge
Germany's last counterattack. Strategy: they knew we traveled in clumps and that there was power in numbers. So they pushed them westward into Belgium and Northern France so that there was no longer a strong clump
Lyndon Johnson
successor to Kennedy, started new round of reform known as Great Society, which included medicare and medicaid
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Dust Bowl
Caused by deforestation and lack of trees - Wind carries top layer of soil because there is little or no vegetation to stop it from being carried. - Solution = Shelter Belt
Germany, Italy, Japan, and USSR
believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low rent/interracial, they lived in communal "crash pads", smoked marijuana and took LSD, sexual revolution, new counter culture, Protestors who influenced US involvement in Vietnam
Charles Linbergh
An America pilot
peace talks
US and Korea realize victory was impossible so by August N. Koreas walked out and progress is still not being made
Roaring 20s
decade characterized by exuberance of popular culture
Panama Canal
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Samuel Gompers
Head of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Was apprentice to a shoemaker, but went to help his dad in a cigar company, but he could not feed his family with that pay. His family moved to a tenement apartment on NYC Lower East Side. He became President of the Cigarmakers' Union and persuaded other craft unions to band together with his union to form the AFL. For the next 38 years, he worked for the AFL, making it a major force in the industrial world. He believed that if workers make good pay, it will make everyone prosperous. He believes in fair wages for all.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Ralph Nader
In 1971, he founded the non-governmental organization (NGO) Public Citizen as an umbrella organization for these projects. Today, Public Citizen has over 140,000 members and scores of researchers investigating Congressional, health, environmental, economic and other issues. Their work is credited with facilitating the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act and Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), and prompting the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
Neil Armstrong
who was the first man on the moon
January 15, 1929 - April 4, 1968) was one of the pivotal leaders of the American civil rights movement. He was a Baptist minister, one of the few leadership roles available to black men at the time. He became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957), serving as its first president. His efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. Here he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history. In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means.
Teddy Roosevelt
president; progressive politic; big areas of involvement are conservation, Sherman Anti Trust Act, and Pure food drug act
began when Germany invaded Poland in 1934; US became in war when Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan in 1941
Jazz Age
It was a time of partying, a lot of drug and alcohol, a lot of jazz music and many new artists like the famous trumpet player, Louis Armstrong.
Archduke Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne who was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
Big Stick Policy
theodore roosevelt's plan to make the US navy stronger he once said "Speak softly and carry a big stick"
Machine Gun: helped stalemate. Women: kept economy going. Innvolvment of US: when Germay sunk Lusitania; zimmerman note. Archduke Ferdinand: Led to AH declarign war on Serbia, killed by Black Hand. Dates: 1914-1919.
Cold War
The ideological conflict between the Communist nations of Eastern Europe, led by the USSR, and the Wester democracies, led by the USA
Malcolm X
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Site of second atom bomb "Fat Man" by Bockscar drop on Japan
space race
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
Cuban Missile Crisis
In October 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when President Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did so, nuclear war was averted, and the crisisended.
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Conservation of Lands
Teddy got money to start national parks
planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris
Black Panther Party
A group formed in 1966, inspired by the idea of Black Power, that provided aid to black neighborhoods; often thought of as radical or violent.
causes of Pearl Harbor
placed an emargo on all trade with Japan making so China was cut off. US refused to cut off aid to China bc the US broke the naval codes
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans. (p. 763)
Bull Moose Party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912
American general who was involved in the Normandy invasion and the Battle of the Bulge; known for his great ability in tank warfare
Social Security Act
August 14, 1935- was drafted by President Roosevelt's committee on economic security, under Edwin Witte. The Act provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death. Payments to retirees were financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer.
immigration restriction league
A Nativist group who wanted to restrict immigration into the U.S. to certain groups they deemed desirable. Because of them congress passed a bill in 1897 requiring a literacy test for immigrants.
Joe McCarthy
Winsconsin Senator that created a national witch hunt for socialist and communists inside the United States after WWII
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Herbert Hoover
president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.

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