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the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac
Homo erectus
"Upright human beings"
The "annointed", the expected king and deliverer of the Jews; a term later aplied by Christians to Jesus
Government by departments of men transacting particular branches of public business.
Sir arthur Evans
Discovered the Palace of Minos at Knossos in Crete
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation
Who was the Roman senator who always finished his speeches with "and carthage must be destroyed)
new testament
the second part of the bible; it tells you about the life and teachings of Jesus and about his followers
Mark antony
general and ally of Caesar, divided the Roman world with Octavian, committed suicide with Cleopatra
hieratic script
simplified version of hieroglyphics used in ancient Egpyt for business transactions, record keeping, and the general needs for daily life
The last Etruscan king, overthrown by the Roman people
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C.E. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, and engaged in widespread commerce. (103)
overbearing pride or presumption
Marcus Lepidus
Member of the 2nd triumvirat, who after attempting to steal Octavian's land had to ive up his own as punishment.
part of the Chinese bureaucracy that made sure government officials were doing their jobs
"carriers of civilization"; located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform
most powerful akkadian king
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)
the most important language of ancient India
Battle of the 300, hot gates, where Leonidas led 300 Spartans against the entire Persian army
Sarah's servant;mother of Ishmeal
nomadic people who moved through the desert to reach seasonal pasturelands.
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
Bull dancing
A ritual performed by the Minoans
the great king of persia. he was able to become king after a year of a civil war following the death of someone.
Pax romana
200 year period of peace in Rome.
Mandate of heaven
VOCABULARY: An early Chinese text that calls Heaven's order to claim rule over China. Lesson 3
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
The Roman Empire in AD 117-138. He ordered the construction of this wall. He traveled though his empire to strengthen it's frontiers and encourage learning and architecture.
Persian prince who was defeated in battle by his brother Artaxerxes II (424-401 BC)
Phillip II
King of Macedonia; father of Alexander the Great.
Official given veto power over plebeian legislature
First amendment
protects freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and the right to petition
first site of the treasury for the Delian League; city from which the Delian League gets its name
"Semitic people" north of the Sumerian city-states
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
Systematic agriculture
the keepinig of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis
king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
catal huyuk
an Neolithic villiage in present day Turkey
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. (p. 136)
ancient city southeast of Naples that was buried by a volcanic eruption from Vesuvius
sentence to death where you are nailed to a cross hanging on a wall, and are left to die my thirst or starvation.
philip v
king of ancient Macedonia whose confrontations with the Romans led to his defeat and his loss of control over Greece
code of hammurabi
the first written code of laws, developed in Babylonia about 2000 BC.
(Bible) the archangel who was the messenger of God
(Greek mythology) a mythical monster with the head of a bull and the body of a man
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Paleolithic age
second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
the holy city to muslims in which you should attempt to visit it once in your lifetime.
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
General who defeated Spartacus. Crucified 6,600 slaves on the Alpennine way. He later served in the First Triumvirate.
Filial piety
VOCABULARY: An idea of Conficius that parents should be treated with the greatest respect. Lesson 3
Edict of milan
313 CE Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire
a Hindu prince or king in India
Statutory law
the body of laws created by legislative statutes
Philosophy founded by "Hanfeizi" teaching that human nature was basically evil, requiring strict laws and harsh punishments. Adopted by the brief, Chin Dynasty
a set of economic principles based on bolicies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country
Jesus of Nazareth
a teacher and prophet born in bethlehem and active in nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for christianity
the sacred writings of the Christian religions
the act of circumcising performed on males eight days after birth as a Jewish and Muslim religious rite
the Spanish town that surrendered to Rome and was squashed by Hannibal
Mare nostrum
(our sea) the Mediterranean to the ancient Romans
a believer or follower of Islam
Representative democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
A religous temple in Mecca that became sacred to Muslims
an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea
ancient Athenian statesman and general in the Peloponnesian War (circa 450-404 BC)
Assyrian empire
this empire covered much of what is now mesopotamia, syria, palestine, egypt, and anatolia; its height was during the seventh and eigth centuries BCE
Linear a
an undeciphered writing system used in Crete in the 17th century B.C.
common law
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
a new Testament book containing Saint Paul's epistle to Titus
An Athenian statesman and a major political figure of the 470s and 460s BC in the ancient city-state of Athens.
fell from favor with persians, started revolt.
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
duties of males of each class
julius caesar
conqueror of Gaul and master of Italy (100-44 BC)
The first five books of the Hebrew Bible containing the laws and teachings of Judaism.
King solomon
ruled iraelites and known for his widom, and built the temple in Jerusalem
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
Prosperous civilization located on the Aegean Island of Crete in the 2nd millenium. Executed powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks.
Five pillars of Islam
true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
Pontius Pilate
Roman Governer who sentenced Jesus to death
Old testament
the collection of books comprising the sacred scripture of the Hebrews and recording their history as the chosen people
the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War
Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances
Silk road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
Beginning in the 700s BCE,first rulers of Roman Republic and Empire; Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization
the ancient Greek known as the father of history
caste system
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC)
She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.
religious teachers who believed they were messengers of God
Abrahams son of hagar
King minos
King of the Minoans
At the center of the city of Athens, the most famous example of a citadel
region of western Asia Minor colonized by Ancient Greeks
Muhammad's wife; a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business
naval battle where the Greek forces defeated the Persians, shortly after the battle at Thermopylae
A government official that worked for the pharaoh
one of the 20 provinces in which Darius divided the Persian Empire
delian league
was formed to protect against threats from persia (after the persian war)
marcus brutus
Leads in the assassination of Julius Caesar.
traditional Islamic law
Son of Abraham and Sarah; born when they were very old
pastoral nomad
a person who domesticaes animals for food and clothing and moves alon regular migratory routes to provide a steady source of nourishment for these animals
Where did the Romans suffer a serious defeat against Hannibal?
(Old Testament) the wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac
humans and other creatures that walk upright
(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return
King of the Persian Army who was defeated by the Greeks in 480 B.C.
Maximus q fabius
Roman dictator who decided that the best strategy was to avoid a direct conflict with hannibal
The battle of marathon
battle where Greece was very outnumbered but still came out on top because of their phalanx formation; Pheidippides brings the news by running 26 miles to Athens
a cruel and oppressive dictator
Hellenic league
The league formed with sparta basically against athens
citizens of Mycenae
one of two cheif leaders in the roman republic
King of Persians; expanded the Persian Empire from Afghanistan to the Aegean Sea
Neolithic revolution
the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC
Germanic tribes
the groups of invaders who took over the Western Roman Empire
an ancient town on Crete where Bronze Age culture flourished from about 2000 BC to 1400 BC
A code of law interpreted in the koran
Homo sapiens
"wise human beings"
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Chosen People
The jews called themselves the chosen people
Law of 12 tables
The first Roman law to apply equally to all citizens
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
a temple tower of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, having the form of a terraced pyramid of successively receding stories
Roman assembly
The system by which laws were made by direct democracy
land outside city walls in Greek city-states
Augustus caesar
(27-14 B.C.) aka Octavian - he fought his was to power by eliminating his triumvirate Marcus Lepidus and Marc Antony to rule by himself. Antony married Cleopatra and he was going to war against them but they killed themselves before he could. He then became Rome's first emperor. While he was in power he rebuilt Rome, and was big on the arts. To feed Rome he got grain sent from Africa. For travel the old roads were fixed and new one was built in other areas. He made it so the emperor had complete power and new tax collectors were set up. In his time Pax Romano started because Rome lived in Peace for a couple hundred years. He was a good emperor but went about getting to power in the wrong way.

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