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the civil rights movement


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He led the Universal Negro Improvement Association and his "back to Africa" movement inspired racial pride in the 1920s.
marcus garvey
the emmett till murder
it occured on august 31, 1955 in money, mississippi. he was shot through the head by roy briant and j. w. milam, chocked by a 75 pound cottin gin that was tied around his neck by a barbewd wire, and thrown into the river. his right eye was on his cheeck and his nose was broken like someone used a meat chopper on it. he couldnt be recognized except for his ring. he was found in the talahatchie river. justice wasnt served at court because the jury said they had failed to identify the body, it was said that roy briant was not guilty. they said the NAACP probably dug up a random body and claimed it was Emmett. his murder impacted the US very hard. 50000 people saw emmett's body. before the insident, many people said that things like Emmett's situation happened only during slavery, not during their generation. this proved them wrong.
rosa parks
on december 1, 1955, rosa parks, an african american seamstress, boarded a bus in montgomery, alabama. she was a secretary of the NAACP. in accordance with local segregation laws, she sat in the first row for "coloreds." as the bus filled up the driver ordered her to give up her seat to a white rider. parks was arrested when she refused, her action brought the montgomery bus boycott into action.
brown v. the board of education (4 O's)
it came down from the court on may 17, 1954. the schools that had instigated the case were in kansas, south carolina, virginia, delaware, and washington. The court said that separation between black children and white children creates a feeling of inferiority in black children and affects their "hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone." It concluded that the "doctrine of 'separate but equal'" has no place in public education. The negative impact was due to Brown II, which did not put a timetable in place for desegregation. Also, some blacks did not want to attend white schools, due to the risks involved. The case was necessary because in the past the NAACP had only challenged the laws that segregated, they had not challenged the basis for segregation - the 1896 Supreme Court ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson. Additionally, the state courts could not rule against segregation without going against the United States Supreme Court, which was the highest in the land and had the final say. The case had to be fought at a federal level. There were several important people involved. Thurgood Marshall was the chief lawyer for the NAACP and presented the case to the Supreme Court. Kenneth and Mamie Clark had done research into the psychological impact of segregation and presented their findings to the NAACP. This research helped prove that "separate but equal" needed to be overruled. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote and presented the opinion of the Court, creating the precedent that paved the legal way for the end of segregation. This court case was different because in the past the NAACP had simply proven that education offered to blacks in specific places was "either unequal or nonexistent." This time the NAACP was arguing that segregation was unconstitutional and challenging the Plessy verdict of 1896.
This man was the chief lawyer for the NAACP and later became the first black Justice on the Supreme Court.
thurgood marshall
freedom rides
began on may 4th 1961.
This person refused to give their seat up for a white man, was arrested, and this arrest prompted the Montgomery bus boycotts.
rosa parks
He was a member of the Black Muslims. His promise to find equality for black Americans using "any means necessary" made him worrisome to whites in power. Later in life he changed his views about working with white America.
malcolm x
the 16th street church bombing
september 15, 1963
This is the idea that people break a law they think is unjust in a non-violent fashion. This happened with the sit-ins, the Children's Marches and various other protests in the Movement.
civil disobedience
black power
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
Harvard's first African American PhD, he assured Harvard that the privilege was Harvard's. He was one of the founding members of the NAACP in 1909 and actively worked, through his writing in the Crisis and his speeches, against segregation. He died shortly before the March on Washington.
w. e. b. du bois
desegregated the armed forces
harry s truman
dwight d. eisenhower (as he related to the crisis at LRCHS)
Eisenhower showed the tension between federal and state governments in the time of the integration of LRCHS when governor faubus refused to let the children in and eisenhower continued to force them in.
This court case occurred in 1954 and involved five school districts being sued. The people suing were led by the NAACP, whose chief lawyer was Thurgood Marshall. The result of the court case said that segregation was no longer legal in education.
brown v. board of education of topeka kansas
to refuse to use. one example of this was the montgomery bus boycott
Thurgood marshall
he became head of the NAACP's legal section in 1938. he was a great lawyer and used his knowledge of the constitution to attack the foundations of segregation. his legal strategy was mostly based on the 14th amendment, which guarantees all citisens equal protection of the laws. it also forbids any state from making laws that interfere with the rights of the US citizens. marshall argued that this meant that all rights in the federal constitution were valid in the states, too. his ultimate goal was integration, an end to racial segregation.
selma (bloody sunday)
march 7, 1965
This person protested against lynching and spoke out in the newspaper Free Speech, asking the federal government for an anti-lynching law.
ida b. wells
This took place in the academic year 1957 - 1958 when nine students attended high school in Little Rock. They were unable to attend until President Eisenhower forced the hand of the governor. When they were met with mob violence, Eisenhower called in the 101st Airborne to protect the nine students.
the integration of central high school
This took place on August 28, 1963 and was organized by A. Philip Randolph. The most talked-about speech from this event is Martin Luther King's "I have a dream" speech. The focus of this was to bring attention to the lack of jobs and freedom for African Americans in the United States.
march on washington
muder by mob`
This took place for more than 370 days when the black residents of Montgomery, Alabama, refused to ride the buses that would not allow desegregation. Though tens of thousands walked for 12 months, what forced the buses to desegregate was not the boycott but a Supreme Court decision. You might want to mention MLK and the Montgomery Improvement Association.
montgomery bus boycott
the montgomery bus boycotts.
they took place on december 5th, 1955. it took place in montgomery, alabama. from december 1, 1955 til it ended, there were cirtually no black riders. the black people of montgomery stayed off the buses for an entire year. the refuse to ride movement was completely peaceful and legal. martin luther king jr was head of the montgomery improvement association and was involved in the boycott. also, E.D. nixon was the most outspoken civil rights leader in montgomery. he bailed parks out of jail and helped encourage people to boycott the buses. since blacks took up most of the profit for the bus company, the economy suffered from the lack of profit from buses.
with his help, the groundbreaking decision brown v. board of ed was successful
earl warren
He was the president that assured the nation that "we shall overcome" when he signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. He also took steps to end discrimination earlier when he signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
lyndon b. johnson
the sit-ins
began on february 1st, 1960. who were the 4 people?*
the civil rights act of 1964
on july 2, 1964, it was signed into law by johnson. it made racial discrimination in public places, such as theaters, restaurants, and hotels, illegal. it also required employers to provide equal employment opportunities. projects involving federal funds couldn now be cut off if there was evidence of discriminated based on color, race, or national origin. it also attempted to deal with the problem of african americans being denied the vote in the deep south. the legislation stated that inuform standards must prevail for establishing the right to vote. schooling to sixth graded constituted legal proof of literacy and the attorney general was given power to initiate legal action in any area where he found a pattern of resistance to the law.
booker t. washington
an educator who taught himself to read. he was born into slavery. he worked in coal mines and went to school whenever possible. he helped found the Tuskgee Institute in Alabama. the school offered training in industrial and agricultual skills. he advised blacks to learn trades and try to move higher and gradually in society. eventually, they would have money and the power to demand equality. to help, he built trade schools for blacks.
He was the young minister that organized the Montgomery bus boycotts and later the SCLC. His "I had a dream speech" is one of the most famous speeches in American history. He was gunned down in 1968 in Memphis, TN.
martin luther king jr.
the principle of the US constitution that establishes the division of power between the federal government and the states. it was important during the civil rights movement because the federal government had constant conflict with the states. one example of this is the event of the integration of LRCHS. governor faubus, the head of the state, refused to let the children integrate, while president eisenhower refused to give in to governor faubus' efforts to prevent the integration.
Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson and Denise McNair were killed on September 15, 1963. Their killers were not brought to justice until much later, the earliest in 1977. This event galvanized the nation and led to blacks and whites becoming more aware of the Movement. (include more details even)
the 16th street baptist church bombing
This man used non-violence in the struggle for a free India.
mahatma gandhi
This is the division between state government and federal government. This division became apparent at various points in the Movement, including when Eisenhower sent in the 101st and when Kennedy forced the integration of the University of Alabama.
ida b. wells
lynching outraged ida b. wells, an african american journalist. she wrote to african americans to protest the lynchings in her newpaper called "free speech". she urged for a boycott of segregated streetcars and white-owned stores. she continued to speak despite threats to her life.
He organized the first march on Washington in 1941, but called it off in the interests of national unity on the eve of war. He called it off because President Franklin Delano Roosevelt asked him to.
a. philip randolph
This took place in the summer of 1964 when thousands of black and white students went into the South to register voters. Three of these people, Chaney, Schwerner and Goodman, disappeared and their dead bodies were not found for over a month.
mississippi freedom summer
the march on washington for jobs and freedom
august 28 1963
civil disobedience
peaceful refusal to obey unjust laws. one example of this is the sit-ins.
This is when people refuse to do something in order to create a change. This is not the same as civil disobedience.
These occurred in 1961, when blacks and whites went into the South riding buses to protest bus segregation.
freedom riders
These took place at lunch counters all over the south. They started in Greensboro, North Carolina, when four students sat at the Woolworth counter. They inspired students, black and white, to stage these all over the country. They were met by violence and angry mobs.
sit ins
cold war
grass roots
society at the local level, especially in rural areas as distinguished from the centers of political leadership. when ordinary people do something and makes it extraordinary. examples are sit-ins, SNCC
martin luther king jr.
a dynamic civil rights leader. he believed in civil disobedience. his belief in nonviolent protest was rooted in christian teachings. he also studied the ideas of gandhi, who led a campaign of nonviolent resistance to win india's freedom from british colonial rule. like gandhi, king taught that one should resist injustice even if it meant going to jail or enduring violence. he helped found the SCLC, or southern christian leadership conference.
This took place in Money, Mississippi, in the summer of 1955 when a young boy was dragged from the home of his relative, beaten, shot and drowned. His open-casket funeral has been called the spark that lit the flame of the Civil Rights Movement.
the murder of emmett till
to burden with cruel or unjust impositions or restraints; subject to a burdensome or harsh exercise of authority or power. an example of this would be lynching *
This is the time period between 1945 and 1991 in which world politics were dominated by the struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. Because the "eyes of the world were watching," the Civil Rights Movement was able to gain a momentum it had not been able to gain after World War I.
cold war
mahatma gandhi
he led a campaign of nonviolent resistance to win india's freedom from british colonial rule. he believed that one should resist injustice even if it meant going to jail or enduring violence. for example, he led a march to protest british laws which forbade indians from extracting their own salt from seawater. during the salt march, tens of thousands of peaceful protestors were arrested or beaten. but they refused to give in. he inspired king with his methods.
the events in chronological order
brown v. the board of education, the emmett till murder, the montgomery bus boucotts, the integration of Little rock central high school, the sit-ins, the freedom rides, the march on washington for jobs and freedom, the 16th street church bombing, the civil rights act of 1964, mississippi freedom summer, selma (bloody sunday), the voting rights act of 1965.
marcus garbey
after world war 1, the great migration occured, but the north was not what the africans expected. race riots broke out in several cities. under these conditions, the jamaican immigrant Marcus Garvey gained a wide following. after arriving in america in 1916, he was a great speaker who created the universal negro improvement association. the UNIA sponsored activities to promote black pride and unity. it also encouraged african americans to move permanently to africa.
something built or installed for a particular purpose
This is when a movement starts at the local level and is not organized by a large group. The Sit-Ins were this kind of movement.
grass roots
He was the president that called in the 101st Airborne to protect the Little Rock Nine.
dwight d. eisenhower
lyndon b johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
affirmative action
business and schools were encouraged to give preference to members of groups that had been discriminated against in the past. people believed this was a form of reverse segregation because it unfairly favored one group of people over another
the voting rights act of 1965
august 6, 1965
committed to civil disobedience
malcolm x
one of the best known of the leaders who believed the civil rights movement was moving too slowly. he supported the nation of Islam, a form of islam whose members were known as black muslims. malcolm x rejected the goal of integration altogether. he called on african americans to separate completely from white society. later, he severed his relationship from the nation of Islam. he rejected separation and spoke instead of an honest white-black brotherhood. before he could fully develop these new ideas though, he was shot to death.
the integration of little rock central high school
the legal battle to integrate Little Rock Central High School began on September 4th 1957 in little rock, Arkansas. they were being attacked and pressured by the whites. the white foot that melba mentions is the pressure coming from segregationist. one example of the white foot is governor faubus, who wouldnt let them go to school. Melba desegregated central high not because she was a crusader but because the school had "five floors of opportunities," governor faubus and president eisenhower and thurgood marshall were involved. governor faubus represented the state government, who was in constant conflict with the federal government, or president eisenhower. this is because governor refused to let them enter the school while eisenhower tried to force them into the school. thurgood marshall was the lawyer who argued that it was legal for them to integrate.
a. philip randolph.
King owed much of his philiosophies to him. he was a prominent african american labor leader who was skilled at organizing nonviolent mass protest. he was head of the brotherhood of sleeping car porters. he threatened a mass protest unless roosevelt moved to end discrimination in the armed forces. in response, the president ordered employees doing business with the government to support racial equality in hiring. to enfore the order, he set up the fair employment practices committee to investigate charges of discrimination. the committee and the growing need for workers opened many jobs that previously had been closed to african americans. by the end of 1944, about two million african americans were working in war plants
His belief that black Americans should seek economic changes and education, but not seek an end segregation made him the object of scorn from his peers, Ida B. Wells and WEB Du Bois.
booker b. washingTON
mississippi freedom summer
after president johnson signed the civil rights act of 1964 on julu 2, 1964 into law, the denial of black american's right to vote became widespread in the south because supposedly, the right to vote was not guaranteed in the civil rights act.
This was passed in 1964 and banned discrimination in public places, ending the era of Jim Crow. Now there could not be separate restrooms, restaurants, water fountains, etc. It was signed by President Johnson.
the civil rights act of 1964
This banned things like literacy tests and good character references and made sure that disenfranchisement was no longer a weapon to be used against African Americans in the United States.
the voting rights act of 1965
W.E.B. Du Bois
they agreed with broker t. washington on the need for "thrift, patience and industrial training" but they critisized washington for being willing to accept segregation. they urged blacks to fight discrimination rather then patiently submit to it. to help, he helped from the national association for the advancement of colored people, or NAACP.

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