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Key Terms in American History


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momement to end slavery
the process of changing the Constitution
1815 plan to make U.S. economically self-sufficient
american system
people who opposed ratification of the Constitution
Appomattox Courthouse
where the South finally surrendered during the Civil War
the process of blending into society
1676 revolt against colonial authority
Bacon's Rebellion
the distribution of power between the 3 branches of gov't.
balance of power
1829-1830 attack by President Jackson on national bank
Bank War
1836 battle between Indian and colonists over control of the Northwest Territory
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1863, ended the South's hopes of winning a battle in the North
Battle of Gettysburg
1775, first battles of the American Revolution
Battles at Lexington and Concord
1863, south lost control of Mississippi
Battle of Vicksburg
1781, last major campaign of the American Revolution
Battle of Yorktown
1777, turning point of the American Revolution
Battle of Saratoga
1863 battle between Texans and the Mexican Army
Battle at the Alamo
conflict between proslavery and anti-slevery people in Kansas
Bleeding Kansas
when goods are prevented from going into or out of an area
1770, conflict between British and colonists
Boston Massacre
1773, protest by colonists in which they dumped tea into Boston Harbor
Boston Tea Party
1849, migration of people to the area after gold was discovered
California Gold Rush
a crop grown to be sold rather than used by the farmer
cash crop
a contract given to someone to establish a colony
each of the three branches of gov't. limits the power of the others
checks and balances
the movement of plants, goods,and diseases between the New World and Europe
Columbian Exchange
ended Reconstruction
Compromise of 1877
the southern states who seceded
first U.S. gov't.
Confederation Congress
the people who vote for a member of government
1787, the meeting of people that agreed on the Constitution
Constitutional Convention
military of the colonists
Continental Army
the group of leader that governed the colonies during the American Revolution
Contitental Congress
1795 invention by Eli Whitney that made processing cotton much easier
cotton gin
1861 plan that maght have preveted secession
crittenden plan
was the principal route through the appalachian moutains
cumberland gap
political party established by Jefferson and Madison
idea that states had the right to reject any law passed by Congress
doctrine of nullification
everyone is entitled to be treated equally under the law
due process of law
a group of voters chosen by each state to elect the President and Vice President
electoral college
prevents ships from entering or leaving a port
1825 waterway connected Great Lakes to New York City
Erie Canal
the President and his cabinet
executive branch
method of building goods that included many workers and machines working in one place
factory system
a system of sharing power between the states and the national gov't
supported ratification of the constitution
relations with government of other countris
foreign polocy
beginning of the Civil War
Fort Sumter
federal agency set up to help former slaves in the South
Freedman's Bureau
an economic system that has few gov't restrictions
free enterprise
political party formed in 1846 to stop the spread of slavery
Free-Soil Party
1754-1763, world-wide war between France and England
French & Indian War
Puritan plan of gov't in Connecticut in 1639
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
religious revival, 1730-1740
Great Awakaning
agreement reached during the constitutional convention that created the American system of gov't
Great Compromise
no one can be held by the gov't without cause
habeas corpus
1859 slave revolt
Harpers Ferry
the process of accusing a gov't official of wrongdoing
someone who agreed to work for an employer in exchange for passage to the New World
indentured servant
a personal liberty guaranteed by the Bill of Rights
individual rights
an economy begins to be based on factories instead of farming
the idea that as many people as possible should be able to vote
Jacksonion Democracy
first permanent English settlement in the New World in 1607
the Supreme Court
judicial branch
the idea that the Supreme Court has the right do review all laws made by Congress
judicial review
war between Puritans and Indians, 1675-1676
King Philip's War
the House of Representatives and the Senate; the branch that makes the laws
legislative branch
group that explored the lands of the Louisiana Purchase
Louis and Clark expedition
everyone, even elected officials, must obey the laws
limited gov't
textile mills founded 1826
Lowell Mills
someone loyal to England during American Revolution
idea that America had a right to all of the land between the east and west coasts
manifest destiny
1620 agreement between PIlgrims to establish a gov't in the New World
Mayflower Compact
idea American culture is a blend of many different cultures
melting pot
economic system in which England controlled the trade of the colonies
land in Southwest given up by Mexico in 1848 after the Mexican War
Mexican Cession
war between US and Mexico, 1846-1848
Mexican War
journey of captured Africans the the New World to be sold
middle passage
armed civilians who are supposed to defend their communities
group of people who moved west to avoid religious persecution
to not become allies with any country
plan of gov't that the constitutional convention considered
Virginia Plan
land that formed the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois
Northwest Territory
trail from Missouri to Oregon
Oregon Trail
someone who supported the American Revolution
founded the Plymourth colony
large farm that raises cash crops
group of people that supports a candidate running for a gov't position
political party
gov't in which the people have the power
popular sovereignty
settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony
wanted to use the federal gov't to impose a new order on the South and wated to grant citizenship rights to former slaves
Radical Republicans
the process of approving the Constitution
process of re-admitting southern states into the Union
system of gov't in which officials are elected in order to represent the interests of the voters
representative gov't
the idea that gov't should be based on the consent of the goverened
political party formed in 1854
Republican Party
a colony ruled by governers appointed by the king
royal colony
English policy of not interfering in the colonies
salutary neglect
a trail from Missouri to New York
Sata Fe Trail
withdrawl of southern states from the Union
religious revival, 1790-1800
Second Great Awakening
tension between North and South as each region placed their own interests above those of the country as a whole
1848 women's rights meeting
Seneca Falls Convention
the division of gov't into three branches
seperation of powers
1787 uprising of farmers
Shay's Rebellion
laws that regulated how slaves could be treated
slave codes
a person was owned by another person in order to control their labor
secret society who opposed British policies
Sons of Liberty
idea that the power of the states should not be tramples on by the national gov't
states' rights
1739 uprising of slaves
Stono Rebellion
the right to vote
fees charged on an economic activity
1828 tariff that made Southerners angry
Tariff of Abominations
people who thought that drinking alcohol was wrong
temperance movement
1836, Texas declared it indeperndence from Mexico
Texas Revolution
agreement at the constitutional convention that allowed slaves to count as 3/5th of a white person
Three-Fifths Compromise
Union strategy to attack not just enemy troops, but anything that helped the enemy: buildings, crops, and rail lines
total war
enforced journey by Cherokee Indians in 1838-1839 from their lands in the east to the west
Trail of Tears
philosophy that believed in the goodness of humans and which valued experience and intuition above reason and logic
system of trade in which goods were exchanged between Europe, Africa, and the New World colonies
triangular trade
right that the government cannot take away
unalienable rights
law that is forbidden by the Constitution
series of escape routes for runaway slaves
Underground Railroad
growth of cities
1619, firt representative gov't in the colonies
Virginia House of Representatives
1812-1815 conflict between England and US
War of 1812
political party formed in 1834
Whig Party
1794 protest by farmers
Whiskey Rebellion
1846 proposal that would have banned slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico
Wilmot Proviso
people who thought that women should have the same rights as men
women's rights movement
1797 incident in which French officials demended a bribe from US diplomats
XYZ affair

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